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Race and Ethnicity Reading.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

Social Inequalities Race and Ethic Relations – Reading 2 Intro: - Prejudice creates conflicts between minorities and the majority  it is politically and economically wasteful because they neglect certain human resources and thus hinder our society’s potential for prosperity - People who have the most difficulty accepting others races believe that race is a biological fact - People who take this approach believe in three categories in the human species – Negroid (blacks) Caucasoid (white) Mongoloid (yellow) - Physical features associated with race are not genetically associated Ethnicity - Some people believe ‘one race, one ethnicity’ - Cultural differences seem more important when they are sharpened by clear physical differences - Race and ethnicity are not necessarily connected  people who differ in appearance may share the same cultural views - Ethnic groups are created by social interactions - Culture are the values that frame people’s lives - We can neither deduce people’s ethnic affiliations from their skin color, nor can we assume that being Chinese today is similar to what it was like in the past Multiculturalism in Canada - Cultural Mosaic – distinct parts fitting together in a single society - Traditional Multiculturalism (pluralism) – is concerned with protecting the rights of individuals  protects the rights of minority people - Modern Multiculturalism is concerned with the survival of diverse cultural groups  individuals are treated as members of a group, and those groups are protected by law - Traditional Multiculturalism protects individual job seekers from bias, Modern Multiculturalism supports blanket preferences, such as employment equity, to promote the hiring of disadvantaged people - Employment equity – gives preference to members of the specially protected groups over otherwise blame-less, white males Vertical Mosaic - John Porter describes Canada as a vertical mosaic where English and French Canadians are at the top of the patchwork, with ethnic minorities positioned below - Entrance Status – the status attained when their group first arrives to Canada - Chain Migration – the successful migration of one family member that creates a chain for the kin and community network - People generally migrate to nearby places they know about, usually through friends or family they knew back home Institutional Completeness - A measure of the degree to which an immigrant ethnic groups gives its own members services they need through its own local institutions - By increasing the numbers of those who carry out most of their activities within the ethnic group, community solidarity and cohesion strengthens - With unfairly restricted areas to economic opportunities, new immigrants use their ethnic membership and assert their ethnic pride as a matter of economic and cultural survival Diasporas - Diaspora means the global spread of migrants of any ethnic group and their culture - Global dispersion of any historically victimized authority Structural Functionalism - Ethnic identity provides social connectedness in an individualistic society - Ethnoculural diversity provides a wide range of opinions that enrich society - Ethnocultural conflict enforces boundaries, and gives groups more cohesion Conflict Theory - Majority groups benefits from marginalizing the minorities - Corporate leaders benefit by hiring minorities at low wages - Racial tension divides workers by setting up competition among them Symbolic Interactionism - Ethnic differences are made by labeling processes - Racial slurs further hurt the minority groups, and can shape how groups look at themselves - Constant awareness of race increases the likelihood of racial conflict Structural Theory - Minorities that are visible are pushed into secondary labor markets - Job markets sometimes exclude people because of their race - Bias against hiring non-whites, has made minority immigrants the ‘middlemen’ Racial Prejudice - Prejudice – aversive attitude towards a person who belongs to a certain group - Racal Discrimination – any exclusion based on race that has the purpose of impairing the enjoyment of human rights - Institutional (structural) Racism – any form of racism that occurs specifically from within an institution  considered to be ‘built into’ these structures - Individual Racism – classic form of prejudice in which a person makes unfounded assumptions about the motives of another based on stereotypical understanding of
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