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SOC102H1 (285)

Domination: Gender inequalities reading 3

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University of Toronto St. George
Lorne Tepperman

Sept 25 reading (1) Points 5: Gender relations Sexism-perceived superiority of one sex over the other (mostly men over women) Gender- the expectations of behaviour or appearance that we describe as masculine or feminine; a set of social expectations Functionalism (what function does it perform for security as a whole) -Talcott Parsons (1955) said that gendered division of labour is the most effective way to carry out society’s tasks of reproduction and socialization -eg. If the mother stays home and raises the children, the entire family will have a strong foundation Critical theory (who holds the power and benefits from a particular social arrangement) (who is best served by gender inequality) -Marxist would say that in capitalism, families are the best and cheapest way to raise new workers -women are victims of both gender and social inequality Symbolic interactionism (how is a social arrangement symbolized) (how is gender inequality negotiated, symbolized and communicated in our society) (how do gender differences become stable gender inequalities) Sexual double standard- the expectation that women will feel or behave differently from men in sexual matters Social constructionism (when and how did the arrangement emerge) (when did gender inequality emerge in a particular society) -more historically oriented than related symbolic interactionism -women’s movement was successful because links were cut between gender, sexuality, and childbearing Types of feminist sociology -most gender differences are socially constructed -*feminism chart???* Gendered socialization -process of socialization teaches children about the opposite sex and socializes them to accept certain specifics like boys being tough and girls being not so rough Hidden curriculum- define gender roles as well as encourage gender stereotypes (guidance counsellors may fail to advise a boy to go into nursing) Mass media -people see how men and women are supposed to act toward one another -eg. Jokes about opposite sex (marriage, where husband makes fun of wife) -women are continually objectifying women as sex objects on display seemingly for purchase (cars, alcohol ads) Sept 25 reading (2) The Beauty Standard -for women, since they have been known throughout history for their beauty and youth, aging is a process most try to avoid through cosmetics -clothing determines a person’s worth especially in job interviews and since poor people cannot afford nice clothing, they look needy and unsuccessful Glass ceiling-any sex barrier to equal opportunity for hiring and positions The gendering of crime -more men than women are likely to be involved in violent situations and commit crimes -men are more like
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