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Sociology (1,513)
SOC102H1 (285)
Chapter

Racialization: Race and ethnic inequalities reading 4

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC102H1
Professor
Lorne Tepperman
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct 2 reading (1) Points 7: Racial and Ethnic Groups Functionalist’s perspective (social inequality provides incentives in the form of status that prompt people to take on the most important social roles -inequality between racial and ethnic groups has a social purpose -ethnic identity provides people with roots and social connectedness in an otherwise fragmented society -ethnic identity benefits society since it allows for discussion of more widely varying opinions and perspectives (survival value) Critical theorist’s perspective -focus on how one group (powerful group) benefits more than another from differentiation, exclusion, and institutional racism -proposes that majority of groups seek to dominate minorities, to gain an economic advantage so they feel superior eg. Chinese immigration limited in fear that cheap Chinese labourers would cause people to lose jobs -exclusionary regulation= racism -racial distinctionsimmigration, hiring, promotion Symbolic interactionist’s perspective (focus on micro social aspects of race and discrimination. Eg. the ways people construct different ethnic differences o subordinate groups) Racial socialization: learning to perceive people (including ourselves) according to presumed racial differences -Racial socialization is a factor that contributes to ongoing racial conflicts in society -constant awareness of differences  racism Structural theorist’s perspective -helps to understand the economic experiences of racial minorities -people’s economic opportunities are based on their ethnic grounds (thus, some are more advantaged) -all immigrants have similar work opportunities when they come to Canada despite what degrees they earned in their previous country. Therefore, many become middlemen (entrepreneurs, agents, brokers) Middlemen minorities: culturally or racially distinct group immigrants suffer discrimination see themselves as strangers settle in areas among other people of same birthplace (to protect themselves)set up as whole salesmen or small merchants come into competition with members of dominant ethnic group middle class life. Therefore, family and community remain very important Social distance -concept devised by Emory S. Bogardus -measures the extent of intergroup segregation and the willingness of group members to mix with other groups Scale (closestmost distant) Oct 2 reading (2) 1) close relative by marriage 2) close personal friend 3) neighbour on same street 4) co-worker in same occupation 5) citizen in own country 6) temporary visitor in own country 7) someone excluded from own country -findings from this method: some groups are less tolerated than others (gypsies) -some groups are less tolerant than others (small isolated communities) -tolerance in a society increases overtime (Canadians are more tolerant now than 1910) *interracial marriage can be another measure of tolerance History of rathal + thhic relations -between 16 – 20 century, members of powerful nations felt superior to members of other nations (colonized nations especially) The logic of moral and cultural superiority: 1) Christianity- justified European conquest of all unbelievers (white man’s burden) 2) Cultural parochialism- narrow-mindedness and commitment to nation building -advantages in technology, weaponry, other material achievements 3) Misunderstood version of Darwinism- European imperial success proved the natural superiority of western European societies over “primitive” societies Immigration policy in the 21 century -less Europeans are immigrants to Canadian particularly because they are satisfied with their living conditions and the European Union -Canada admits 260,000 new immigrants annually -India and China are the top two -immigrants to Canada are rated in terms of age, educational credentials, work experience, English and French language ability, but not country of origin Applicants are divided into 4 categories: (in order of most common) 1) skilled workers to boost economy 2) family members being reunited 3) refugees hoping to escape their countries which violate human rights Inter-Ethnic interaction -Canadians who socialize with people of other cultures Canada says it is important to learn from other cultures and socializes with them regularly (71%) Large cities say it is important to learn from.... socialize with them regularly (82%) Rural communities say it is important… but rarely socialize with them regularly (61%) -ethnic self-segregation is common in Canada’s cities (Chinatown, little Italy) -l
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