SOC102H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter intro: Network Architecture, Flow Network, Competition Model

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30 Jun 2016
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This%book%is%about%the%flow%processes%called%diffusion,%migration,%mobility,%and%
renewal.
A%topic%relevant%to%this%book%is%measuring%social%structural%characteristics%such%as%
network%size,%centrality,%density,%and%heterogeneity,%particularly%in%connections%with%
cliques.
The%dominant%model
§
Looks%at%the%pattern%of%interconnections%between%people%(or%
organizations),%through%which%units%(e.g.,%information,%support,%
money)%are%flowing
§
The%paradigm%focuses%on%ties%between%individuals,%rather%
than%on%an%actor's%attributes%or%characteristics
1.
It%relies%on%systematic%empirical%data,%rather%than%deductive%
assertions
2.
It%makes%heavy%use%of%graphic%images
3.
It%uses%models%that%are%mainly%mathematical%or%
computational,%rather%than%verbal
4.
Elaboration%of%the%concept%of%centrality%in%social%network:%
centrality%is%that%position%within%a%social%network%that%has%the%
shortest%path%to%all%others
i)
People%with%a%low%degree%of%centrality%internalize%
their%position%and%isolate%themselves%accordingly,%
communicating%rarely
ii)
This%central%person%comes%into%direct%contact%with%more%
people%than%any%other%member%of%the%network
1.
This%central%person%has%the%ability%to%control%and%
influence%communication%among%all%the%other%members%
of%the%network%which%place%that%person%in%a%position%of%
control%and%leadership
2.
This%central%person%does%not%have%to%rely%on%
intermediate%or%"relayers"%of%messages%because%
centrality%enables%this%person%to%avoid%control%by%
others,%and%reduces%dependency%on%them
3.
He%identifies%three%was%a%"central%person%is%structurally%
unique:
Linton%freeman%illustrate%the%focus%on%network%structures.%He%
identifies%four%central%tenets%of%the%social%network%paradigm:
§
The%network%architecture%model
Focuses%on%the%things%that%flow%from%person%to%person%-ideas,%job%
information,%rumors,%gossip%-and%the%factors%that%speed%up%or%slow%
down%adoption%by%recipients
§
"The%blackcloth%consists%of%an%underlying%infrastructure%that%
enables%and%constrains%the%traffic,%and%the%traffic%consists%of%
what%flows%through%the%network,%such%as%information"
Atkins%call%the%"blackcloth,"the%network%flow%model%is%largely%
concerned%with%the%"traffic"%in%social%life:
§
The%network%flow%model%
Borgatti%and%Lopez-Kidwell%(2011)%argue%that%there%are%at%least%two%main%%
patterns%in%this%field%of%study:
Borgatti%and%Lopez-Kidwell%note%that%"the%flowing%category%includes%things%such%
as%resources,%information,%and%diseases%that%movee%from%node%to%node.%They%
may%transfer%(being%only%at%one%place%at%one%time)%and%duplicate%(as%in%
information).%Flows%matter%in%most%network%theories,%but%are%generally%assumed%
immeasurable%in%practice."
Similarly,%Charles%Kaudushin%notes%that%"social%network%theories%and%ideas%can%
be%applied%to%any%social%level."
"Many%structural%analysts%now%argue%that%all%social%behavior%is%best%
analyzed%by%looking%first%at%the%ways%in%which%networks%allocate%resources%
to%system%members"
Barry%Wellman%has%directly%linked%flows%to%inequality%in%a%provocative%way:
In%the%flow%model,%ties%are%pipes%(or%roads,%or%circuits)%through%which%
things%flow%(the%traffic,%the%current).
In%the%architecture%model,%the%ties%are%bonds,%ligatures,%girders,%or%bones%
that%bind%the%network%together,%creating%a%structure%(like%a%skeleton)%
around%which%the%rest%of%the%social%system%is%draped.%The%bonds%serve%as%
the%elemental%units%of%structure
Both%model%involves%flows%of%some%kind%at%the%dyadic%level
It%is%the%style%and%functions%of%these%flows%that%is%different
However%Borgatti%and%Lopez-Kidwell%argue%against%viewing%the%two%models%as%
being%distict:
We%disagree%that%social%traffic%-the%flow%of%information%and%other%resources%-is%
impossible%to%measure
Debate:%what%is%the%general%relationship%between%social%structure%and%social%%
processes
All%people%desire%equality
Equality%is%achievable
Inequality%is%a%social%pathology
Once%the%heroic%disadvantaged%people%overthrow%their%villainous%
oppressors,%equality%will%prevail
This%assumption%of%"natural%equality"%is%stymied%by%the%facts:%no%
society%with%any%surplus%-no%society%larger%and%richer%than%a%hunter-
gatherer%society%-has%ever%approximated%social%equality;%and%most%
societies%have%been%very%unequal%indeed
§
If%based%on%a%concept%of%natural%rights,%inequality%can%be%seen%as%the%result%
of%villainy:%heroic%disadvantaged%people%are%oppressed%by%villainous%
advantaged%people
What%cause%inequality?%What%prevents%equality%from%blossoming%
naturally?
The%Heroes-And-Villains%model%is%adopted%by%left-wing%social%philosopher%from%
Rousseau,%Marx,%and%Engels%onward
Equality%requires%healthy%public%institutions%and%vigilant%citizens
Once%"heroes"%subdue%their%historic%villains,%new%villains%inevitably%arise
Sometimes%the%former%heroes%become%villains
Equality%never%prevails
After%each%"equality%revolution"%a%new%form%of%inequality%arises,%bringing%
new%heroes%and%villains
How%it%resists%change%and%eradication,%reproduces%itself,%and%increases%
overtime?%How%do%heroes%and%villains,%victors%and%victims,%oppressor%and%
oppressed%people,%endlessly%circulate% in%human%history?
General%Competition%model%is%adopted%in%this%book
Status%groups%-collections%of%people%who%pursue%their%own%advantage%at%other%
people's%expense
More%equal%access%to%the%flows%that%are%of%great%value%in%human%life%will%reduce%
inequality
Flows&
Sunday,%September% 20,%2015
11:57%PM
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Document Summary

This book is about the flow processes called diffusion, migration, mobility, and renewal. A topic relevant to this book is measuring social structural characteristics such as network size, centrality, density, and heterogeneity, particularly in connections with cliques. Borgatti and lopez-kidwell (2011) argue that there are at least two main patterns in this field of study: Looks at the pattern of interconnections between people (or organizations), through which units (e. g. , information, support, money) are flowing. Linton freeman illustrate the focus on network structures. He identifies four central tenets of the social network paradigm: The paradigm focuses on ties between individuals, rather than on an actor"s attributes or characteristics. It relies on systematic empirical data, rather than deductive assertions. It uses models that are mainly mathematical or computational, rather than verbal. Elaboration of the concept of centrality in social network: centrality is that position within a social network that has the shortest path to all others.

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