Includes refusing jobs to qualified and willing candidates because of stereotypic attitudes towards people young or old who violate the age norms and expectations of our society. In earlier times, advanced age = respect, authority, and attention from others. As western populations industrialized, children could more readily strike out on their own as earners; no longer had to rely on the help or good opinion of their fathers and mothers. Young people made themselves less available or willing to provide help to aging parents. Began during the 19th and 10th century in the west, and second half of the 20th century in the east. Members of our culture tend to fear gaining, with its concomitant physical decline to death. One common belief is that most seniors are frail and ailing and that the majority need full-time care in nursing homes or other institutional settings.