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University of Toronto St. George

(6) Sexuality, (8) Age Groups, (10) Regions, Nations and Empires 1 Sociology 102 CHAPTER 6 SEXUALITY - Canadians public sexual opinion has become liberal o People willing to accept marketing of magazines and film in porn context - People view sex as normal and healthy part of human behavior o Increasing openness = norms of sexuality are changing - New liberal views of sexuality = acceptance of sexual practices outside from dominant norm o More accepting than previous generation and value holding individual rights - Since 2005, homosexuality marriages are accepted in Canada - ^ Achievement since it represents end to a form of social discrimination; changes perception of what is normal sexual behavior over time - Pornography and prostitution remain central issues about sexuality because both are prevalent in society Sex: biological characteristics that define a Sexuality: feelings of sexual attractions and person as male or female and act of sexual any behaviors related to them intercourse - Take on sexuality of social interaction at micro level (sex talks with partners) are influenced by broader macro factors on how our sexuality will finally be experienced Functionalism: o Argue that even though people claim to view negatively on sexual behaviors, it plays valuable role in society o All deviations test boundaries of social acceptances of behavior o Prostitutions fixes boundaries of acceptable morality within society Stating prostitutions is immoral clarifies the boundaries b/w acceptance and unacceptable Increases social cohesion o Sexual deviance = varied sexual outlets for people Prostitution gives people opportunity to fulfill some desires without putting pressure on spouses to engage in sex that they may be considered immoral o Without such outlets for fantasies, it may lead to social disruptive activities marital infidelity and affairs leading to divorce o ^ with this knowledge, prostitutions may lead for good in society serves society as a whole to hold a family and institution of marriages together o As long as sexual conformity and sexual deviance are isolated, they do not interfere and cause tension o Segregations enables two opposite types of institutions to work side by side including different people and follow different paths Critical Theory o Who benefit from existing social order and who suffers? o Sexual deviance reflect social inequality and differential across to money and power o Dominant group in society have greatest influence over stating what sexual activity is considered normal and if they are legal or illegal o Prostitutions reflect gender inequality it permits men to gain income and pleasure by exploiting women o Prostitutions is often about poverty people lack access to earnings that they need Enormous members of prostitutions in developing countries In our society, prostitutions is less-educated and socially disadvantaged women (6) Sexuality, (8) Age Groups, (10) Regions, Nations and Empires 2 Sociology 102 Symbolic interaction o Sexual norms change over time for reasons o Change occurs of rewriting rules and restrictions on sexual behavior sexual script One of the dominant sexual script: sexually assertive ma and passive resistant women who are expected to desire sex much less than her sexual partner - many couples rewrite these scripts to reflect their own personal tastes and needs o As people come to know and accept varieties in sexual behaviors of others, they come to admit acceptability and normality of behaviors formerly considered abnormal thus supporting new rules o Interaction with minority groups make members of majority groups more accepting to deviance People who live in area with more homosexuals, will accept them more o Useful to studying socialization of prostitutes, their entry to this line of work and how they develop strategies to with johns (customers) and pimps (managers) o Useful in studying social construction of social problems around sexual activity and interested in studying public views about changes in age of initiation into sexuality Feminism: o Argue that Canadian society is patriarchal: male-dominant, unfair, exploitive of women and their bodies o Sexual behavior express inequality of roles in women and men o Boritch refers to fallen women as ones who has violated her gender role, losing her culturally required purity through sexual looseness o View female sex workers as deviant women, while men that are their customers as for fun o Criminal justice system targets prostitutes rather than johns Prostitutes are charged and convicted than their customers sociologists call this blaming the victim o Aware of financial imperatives that lead women into prostitutes o State the sexualisation of our culture and depiction of women as sexual objects in advertising o Women remain more likely to be victims of sexual crime o Girls are more likely to be sexually abused at home Prostitutions: provision of sexual services for Sexual scripts: guidelines that describe socially reward, usually money acceptable ways of behaving when engaging in sexual activities Media distortion: women and sex in media - Laurie Abraham, lie about sex sex is still thought as a primarily for mens pleasure and that notion persists women are to devote themselves to satisfy men - Jean Kilbourne women are treated as sexual objects rather than human beings, particularly when only parts of body are shown o Believes sex in media has far more to do with trivializing sex than promoting it Postmodernism o Sexual scripts based on what people consider normal o This approach question our thinking about normality o Foucault goal is to compare ancient pagan and Christian ethics on sexuality and trace the development of Christian ideas about sex to present day Believes that modern thinking about sexuality is intimately associated with power structures of modern thinking about sexuality is intimately associated with power structures of modern society o Early Christianity, sexual pleasure became linked to unlawful conduct and rule breaking o Foucault agrees pleasure come from regulation and self-discipline (6) Sexuality, (8) Age Groups, (10) Regions, Nations and Empires 3 Sociology 102 o Internalizing norms laid down by science of sexuality, people try to conform to these norms o Foucault argues that strategically placed marginal position in society gives special insight into how others interpret and act out their sexuality, in homosexuality o Sexuality as a lifestyle choice and means of seeking pleaure can be related to consumption of many kinds o Today`s consumption (fashion clothing, etc) is central to survival of capitalism o With such consumption often preoccupying us, expressing our sexual tastes and desires mean paying more attention to sex-related commodity consumption o Strongly supports study of alternative sexualities o Conventional masculinity norms are being subverted and reproduced in the larger queer communities o Mertons adapters to anomie unwilling to give up sex altogether and unable to fully to conform, they have to innovate Physically handicapped These people have gained particular advantages with cybersex makes it less dependent on physical location or mobility Classic Studies: Social Organization of Sexuality 1994 - Represents breakthrough in our systematic knowledge about sexual behaviors in the US - Study began looking at association with AIDS virus and how they spread quickly during 1980s - Originally funded by federal government with sample size of 10000- 20000 then ended with being funded by private funders with smaller sample size - Findings show a sexually conservation nation o Revealed that Americans favor monogamy in principle and practice o Norm is to have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime - American surveyed gained sexual experience early in life and married and settled with ONE mate - American marriage regulates sexual behavior with remarkable efficiency o Little evidence on unconventional sexuality o People are more likely to hav
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