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Lorne Tepperman

Introducing Sociology Definitions Suicide – Emile Durkheim Sociology – the systematic study of social behavior, or the stud of society  study laid quantitative methods in modern sociology Society – The largest-scale human group, whose members interact w/ one o established sociological discipline in academia another, share a common geographic territory, and share common o “the sociological method” = systematic analysis of statistics institutions.  ex. rates of suicide in different localities, groups Macrosociology – The study of social institutions (ex. Roman Catholic  result: suicide rates not only reflect individual behavior, also some Church or marriage) and large social group (ex. ethnic minorities, prevailing trend compelling individuals to suicidal behaviors college students) o ruled out psychological explanations: Jewish community Microsociology – the study of processes and patterns of personal highest neurosis, lowest suicides interaction that take place among people w/i groups. o visible social patterns counter psychological explanation Sociological imagination – an approach to sociology that situates the  3 types of suicide identified personal experiences of individuals w/i the societal context in o 1. Egotistic suicide – people fall out of social group or groups’ which these experiences occur. bonds weakened by excessive individualism Social institutions – one kind of social structure, made up of a number of  social value of churches, schools, families in building relationships (i.e. stable patterns of meaningful orientation to one social bonds  dissolution = increase likelihood suicide another). People use institutions to achieve their intended goals, as  noted Protestant faith more individualistic than Catholic students use schools, or patients use hospitals.  Protestants more likely to suicide, data supported Role – the expected pattern of interaction with others.  social institutions central to social integration Interaction – The process by and manner in which, social actors–people  ex. Married less suicide b/c more trying to meet each other’s expectations–relate to each other, integration/obligation especially in face to face encounters. o 2. Altruistic suicide – motivated by social duty, Expectations – A shared idea about how people should carry out the  motivated by self-abnegation, greater good, glory duties attached to a particular status.  ex. Suicides higher among soldiers than civilians Status – A socially defined position that delineates people’s rights and responsibilities o 3. Anomic suicide – b/c absence of social regulations, norms  happen after sudden social shock or disturbance Social structure – Any enduring predictable pattern of social relations  suicide b/c sudden confusion & distress, social among people in society; the subject matter of sociology. All social uncertainty, req. rapid readjustment  no societal guide structures control us, so that we act in a certain way in a given situation, despite personal differences; they change us, so we  Conclusion: suicide rates correlated inversely w/ person’s degree of integration into domestic, religious, political society behave differently in different situations, despite our more or less o highly integrated less likely suicide fixed “personalities”; and although they resist the efforts of  similar principle apply w/ deviant behavior, “stake in conformity” individuals to bring about social change, the also produce social o Functions of Deviance and Conformity change. Negotiation – the ways in which people try to make sense of one another  all societies allow marginal tolerable/invisible deviance  crime clarifies social boundaries btwn right/wrong and make sense to one another; for example, by conferring,  psychological focuses individual factors  deviance = usual bargaining, making arrangements, compromising, and reaching behavior of abnormal people agreements.  crimes & anti-social acts b/c personality defects  deviance b/c/ social reasons, conformity preferred b/c rewarded Notes  Social control theory of deviance  Sociology explain difference, find patterns in social relations  normal people have deviant impulses, but unmotivated o also solve problems – find better ways live together o blame not centered in sociology  to blame is not to understand  deviance deterred b/c people develop “stake in conformity”  law-biding benefit/avoid punishment  everyone has agency, free will & constrained, manipulated  Children learn rule w/ supervision o not common sense knowledge; seek scientific, sound explanations  Older = more social relationships  reciprocal obligation  Functional theory o Society = interconnected & interdependent parts networks: friends/acquaintances reward conformity,   create stability & efficiency punish deviance w/ exclusion, shame, contempt  rewarded conformity encourages more conformity  parts = social institutions: families, economy, gov’t, education  other locked into deviance, some into conventional conformity  ex. economy regulates good/services production, distributions, consumption; schools socialize youth  conform to rules valuing deviance, criminality o Robert Merton: social institutions manifest and latent functions  early crime involvement weakens social bonds, failure build social network outside crime  criminal life trap  manifest function  intended, easily recognized  escapes: key life events –ex. marriage, parenthood,  latent function  unintended & hidden  ex. Durkheim: crime’s manifest: benefit lawbreaker; latent valued job, home purchase b/c new bonds impose mobilize popular sentiment, set social boundaries, solidarity behavioral control o Functionalist: social problems b/c rapid social change  institutions  Rational choice theory of deviance  explains normal person’s criminal intents fail fulfill roles  social disorder & problems  sudden cultural shift disrupt traditional values  assumes all people competing socio-economic resources  ex. NA industrialization & urbanization  social disorganization  if no caught/punish risk, motivates crime for own welfare  Durkheim: rapid social change  anomie (normlessness)  (il)legal works on income-generating activities continuum  ex. corporate crime = rational, weighs costs/benefits  traditional guidance forms break down, social control decline, less bonds btwn people  more deviance  fundamentals: break rules when deviance controls/norms weak  solution: strength social normal, slow social change pace  Durkheim: Crime/deviance universal maybe societal necessity  ex results: increase suicides, familial conflicts & violence  punishment strengthen social cohesion btwn law-abiders o The Functions of Conflict  result: society more socially, culturally, morally evolved  similar to deviance: normal & universal, healthy for society o Postmodernism: rationality unclear  knowledge situation specific,  conflict clarifies boundaries btwn opposing people limited to time, place, social position  strengths social cohesion, co-operation, unity btwn groups  prevent knowledge construction & imposition need critique & o Modern Functionalism deconstruct  perspective from Durkheim’s macrosociological views  reality fragmented, all accounts disjointed & conflicting  key proponents: Robert Merton, Talcott Parson  no singular truth; proponents = propaganda, confuse &  Critical Theory dominate public o approach: inequality btwn groups  class, gender, race  questions normality definition  views society = collection of varied groups, constant struggle to o support by: gender, race, gay right, anti-globalization, dominate society & institutions environmentalist movements  reject functionalist social problems explanations: limited focus o reject objectivity & subsequent claims weak point on power struggles, special interests o ex. Foucault’s analysis of prisons & imprisonment  Marx: modern social problems b/c capitalism, exploitive  all modern society = prison, panopticon economic system not industrialization & urbanization  prisoners constant surveillance, unseen guards  social problems b/c economic inequality 2 groups, based  disciplinary society: 3 primary control techniques on relation to production:  hierarchical observation  Bourgeoisie – owners, control means of production  normalizing judgment  Proletariat – working class, wage laborers  continual examination  Bourgeoisies retain dominance b/c economic/ political  Foucault’s analysis applicable to any space w/ power differential power  ex. school, factories, offices  result: proles alienate from work  Feminist theory  solution: abolish bourgeoisie  fair wages = work value o focus: dominance & subordination relations btwn genders  Weber: “status groups”, “political parties” w/ inequalities  study gender-based inequities differing women’s lives  conflict isn’t required to class or capitalism  mix critical and symbolic interactionism o View conflicts != destructive societal force  argue: gender inequalities b/c socio-economic & ideological  use: focus attention on social problem, bring people together factor not biological  conflict central to many social movements o women often force female roles  domestically, work, public  ex. women’s, LGBT, civil rights movements  role acceptance more costly, dangerous than male equivalent o Focus: manipulative ideologies not shared values o key interests: gendering of experiences & victimization  Ideologies – beliefs that guide people’s interpretations of and  Intersectionality follows victimization  combination of reactions to external events disadvantages  dominant ideology = ideology of dominate social class, justifies o Feminist axioms/assumptions: class’s power and wealth  all person life = political dimension  programs society against class inequality b/c favor elites  public & private life spheres gendered  taught in schools, religious institutions, media  women’s & men’s social experience differ & view world o Conflicts over Power and Authority differently  power – ability dominate, many aspects (direct/indirect)  patriarchy (male control) embedded in society  authority – legitimate power exercised in justified way o First wave: 1850s – 1900s: women’s suffrage  ex. elected gov’t, police department,  1960s women’s universal oppression  Weber: 3 main sources of authority in history:  Symbolic Interaction o focus: social relationship/interactions  shared meanings,  1. traditional; 2. rational-legal; 3. charismatic  modernization associated w/ shift btwn 1  2 definitions, symbols  major social upheavals associated w/ shift 2  3  Also: effects of labeling deviants, criminals  stigma  Weber’s analysis more power than Marx b/c generalizes from o Social problems: analyze how certain behaviors defined/framed  Labeling Theory: any social problem constructed/defined by class conflict to intergroup conflict o Modern Critical Theory – Frankfurt School of sociology influence groups  19 century: scientific methods formulate societal laws  ex. Marijuana smoking made social problems b/c moral  20 century: subjective, less dogmatic approach entrepreneurs; no intrinsic harms  Herbert Blumer: social problems develop in stages The Vertical Mosaic – John Porter  Noted historical link btwn ethnic immigrant origins and current  1. social recognition class location  2. social legitimating o elites mainly White Anglo Saxon Protestant, few French  3. mobilization for action  4. development and implementation of an official plan  solve issue, encourage bettering education access for all classes  higher education = opportunity for next generation o studies social structures, as patterns of behavior, arise out of process by which people interpret and respond to each other  Postmodern Theories o Herbert Blumer: basic elements of model w/ three propositions  1. human beings act towards things on the basis of meaning that o interested: ideologies protecting dominant social order, incl. critical  ex. mass media. frames conventional ideologies, propaganda things have from them o counter modernism (19 – 20 century) social phenomena studies  2.these meanings arise out of social interaction  modernism: “truth” about reality through science, 1 per  3. social action results from a fitting together of individual lines of action situation o Simmel, studied effects of urbanization, urban lifestyle  social life improve w/ science = social progress  science defines normality, encourage conformity o “definition of the situation” – shared situational norms guide course  shared meaning make possible social interactions of interaction, constrains interaction but not rigid  Goffman: dramaturgical view of social life  emerge from interpersonal negotiations, formal/direct o Social Constructionism Stigma – Erving Goffman  examine how people create shared social reality   George Herbert Mead: children learn interaction by acquiring shared system of symbols Material Settings Definitions  grain production +64% (1970 – 1990); +24% (1990 – Sociology – the systematic study of social behavior, or the stud of society 2010) Demography – The study of human populations – their growth and  past growth b/c irrigation expansion, tripled (1950 – decline through births, deaths and migration. 2000), no significant growth (2000 – 2010) Environmental geography – the systematic study of the interaction  world irrigated are per 1000 pop: 47ha 1970s  43ha between humans and the surrounding natural world, focusing on 2007 the human impact on the environment and vice versa.  world’s hungry 800 million 1970  1 billion 2010 Human capital – a skill or skull set usually including educational  Optimum pop. 1 – 2 billion attainment or job related experience, that enhances a worker’s o Critical response value on the job; the result of foregone income and a long-term  deny social equilibrium attainable/social arraignment benefits investment in personal improvement. all Population composition – the makeup or mix of different social types in a  powerful people self-benefiting actions, push supporting population; for example, ,the different numbers of men and theories women, old and young people.  Developing countries problems b/c socio-economic inequalities Population Pyramid – A graphic depiction of the age- sex composition of a not over-pop. population Cohort – a set of people with a common origin or starting point; birth  ex. recent famines b/c improper land use, civil wars, political factors, protectionist tariffs cohort – a set of people born in the same year or set of years.  historically famine not significant “positive check” Human geography – the systematic study of the location of human  poverty inequality cause problems similar by overpopulation enterprises and characteristics; for example, health, education, commerce, and trade; closely linked to other social sciences like  peasants high fertility b/c children = farm worker, caregiver sociology.  w/ modernity, economic dev.: fertility decrease, no Megacity – a geographic locale with a large concentrated population, growth sometime defined as exceeding 5 million people (also megalopolis, or megapolis)  industrial societies: poorer family gain by reducing Bedroom suburb – A residential area near a large city that provides fertility  Large, rapidly growing pop. merely compounds problems housing and services for people who commute each day into the of poverty, dependency, plague, famine downtown urban area.  advocate: zero population growth (ZPG) = temp solution Notes  birth rate = death rate, population size constant o Why Demography WORKING TITLE  Population & Demography:  o Functionalist view: Malthusian o Population Trends WORKING TITLE  Tomas Malthus: pop. issues  environmental, food supply impacts  currently 6.9 billion, projected 9 billion 2070, 8.4 billion 2100   Basis: food production additive, population increase o World Population exponentially   population eventually outstrip food supply  food per capita decline The Limits to Growth – Erving Goffman  food production limits: arable land, soil quality,  technological level  The Environment  limited carrying capacity (# ppl supportable by available resources at given technological level) o Functionalism  Pop. growth “checks”, keep pop. w/ food supply, prevent  o Critical Theory overpop.   positive checks: increase death rate,–ex. war, famine, disease o Symbolic Interactionism  preventive checks: limiting live birth # –ex. abortion,  d o Natural Environment infanticide, abstinence, delayed marriage, contraceptives   preventive promoted by Malthus, avoid positive checks o Location & Human Geography  Concern w/ maintain social equilibrium, pop. in line w/ foods  else nature re-assert societal equilibrium = war, famine   Urban life:  Currently developing country fertility rates 4 – 6: o Functionalist view  S.E Asia, Middle East, Africa, Latin America = millions  Durkheim: previously rural, small town life: mothers  current rate global pop. possibly double every 25  common conscience – shared experiences, values, norms, singular identity btwn members  World food product increase, slower rate  mechanical solidarity – members interconnected w/  inner-city well-off resident in gated communities homogenous social order  urban problems persist b/c no powerful group lobbying for it  Durkheim: new urban-industrial society: o Symbolic Interactionism  interdependent, not intimate  study ppl’s everyday experience w/ city life  linked w/ organic solidarity – not self-sufficient for  Simmel: cities inherently stimulating, quick pace survival  prevent sensory overload, inhabitants reduce sensitivity  urban social problem b/c city’s rapid growth & specialization to surrounding events & people  more wealth = more crime  city structures & experience varies btwn ppl & subcultures  higher density = more resource competition (housing)  subculture = group of ppl sharing some societal cultural  city’s size, variety, fluidity  create social disorganization, weak traits & distinct group values, beliefs, norms, behavior social controls = deviance, distress  urban subcultures allow isolated connect w/ others  rapid social change  need finding new social  ex. ethnic urban community, gangs, corporate elites equilibrium  social problems o Buildings and Cityscapes  costs of urbanization = crime, addiction, mental illness   Merton: crime, addiction, mental illness = adaptations to o Urbanization  anomie o Critical theory o Built Environments  urban problems b/c capitalism, economic inequality   not increased size, variety, fluidity Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity – Ulrich Beck   wealthy in suburbs, lack of internet inner city poor Social Structures Definitions  one learns from others & society, must complete Social Scripts – Guidelines that people follow to carry out interactions and prearranged expectations fulfill role expectations as seamlessly as possible  may req. complete other rules –ex. student  intern  Role – the expected behavior of an individual in a social position and the professional duties associated with that position  dynamic process, controlled by motivation Identity – all the ways in which we view and describe ourselves  req. learning/using symbols: esp. language (female/male, friend, student, attractive, unusual, etc.) and in  Ralph Turner: role-making, through social interaction which others perceive us.  roles invention w/ others’ co-operation Looking-glass self – The process in which people come to see (and value)  role may not fit w/ culture, req. public acknowledge & themselves as others see them acceptance, or subculture acceptance Role-set – the collection of roles any individual plays.  else deviant roles: subject to stigma, exclusion Symbol – A thing that stands for or represents something else, and o Identity, interrelated w/ roles provides a means of communication (ex. through spoken words,  assumption: identities unique, from personalities, experiences, written words, facial expressions, or body language) Role Taking – The process in which we take on existing defined roles desires, wishes  interactionists: social roles form identities, not innate Role Making – The process of creating new social roles in and through  may conflict w/ personalities & basic inclinations interaction  identity may have associated roles = role sets Status – A person’s social position, which is associated with a role and it associated scripts.  ex. parent: roles = teacher, care-givers, etc. o Social conformity originates inside & outside conforming person Status sequence – the array of statuses we occupy over a lifetime,  conform to / irritated, frustrated, disappointed in social rule through which we pass in a socially recognizable order. o Labeling theory: identity formation by looking-glass self Role Strain – a result of role conflict, when demands of some roles conflict  individual identities formed by others’ views/treatment w/ the demands of others.  influences treatment of oneself  limited applicability, don’t absorb all labels/descriptors Notes o Goffman: roles & identities intertwined, overlap:  Social forms (Georg Simmel)  role embracement – person willingly accept social role & o Patterned modes of interaction through which people achieve their individual goals, conventional and lots of expectations, associated identity  role distance – person accept role, reject associated identity  yet each individual are experiencing individually and unique  role exit – process, person leaves role o Social scripts  socialized, followed to play roles, avoid blame, guilt  result: rejection/loss certain activities, rights,  related w/ symbolic interactionism’s dramaturgical approach  Erving Goffman: understand social life w/ theatre responsibilities; also associated identity o status: social positions , resource for role-play  scripted lines = roles, costuming = dressing; diff. btwn events  status & roles relate but not same  deviate from script interactional glitch = shame, humiliated  Ralph Linton: ppl play roles, occupy statuses  some latitude w/ script = incomplete & confusing  still req. social skill/insight b/c scripts imperfect  status characterized by: qualities, duties, privileges o Role played provided w/ social scripts  hierarchical relationship w/ other statuses  functionalists: w/o agreed on status hierarchy no stable roles =  fulfillment = effective interaction, breach = embarrassment, etc. no stable interactions  pair role –ex. parent-child, husband-wife  faulty/incomplete socialization = ppl refuse rights/duties  clearly defined interaction btwn 2 parties  interactionists: social roles not predetermined w/ hierarchical statuses  social interaction breakdown, disorder  George Herbert Mead: role-taking – adopts roles throughout life  counter measure: embarrassment, shame o Role Conflicts & Role Strain  diff. from social communities: same category !=  person satisfy demands 2+ incompatible or contradictory roles communication/interaction o Dealing w/ Role conflicts  ppl less likely identify w/ demography vs. community  1. Prioritize social roles o category mobilization – ex. women’s, gay rights, black movements  Placing priority on some roles and giving other lesser  by interaction, communication, raise awareness, political action importance demographic category  political movement  social  2. Adopt a master status community  Taking one role and making it supreme over all the others  w/ identity, membership, belief  3. Compartmentalization  Dyads, Triads, Small groups  Keeping social groups separate to avoid humiliation o binary groups tend to either agree easily/disagree  Ex. Keeping parent and friends separate o odd-numbered groups take longer agreeing, usually no fall out o voluntarism – our social behavior is a clear reflect of our goals, value  Other: secrecy  2 worlds  “first world” recognized world accepted social activities and intentions  “second world” (usually) hidden deviant activities  Teams, Bands, Gangs - functional problem solved  Communities & categories: social structures most obvious o people are motivated to join and participate  therefore, we can take their motivation for granted o community – group of people, interact & communicate often  shared common interests, values, goals, close proximity o however, they may differ greatly in their skill level  identified members, w/ community name o they may also differ greatly in attention span and self-control o membership = valued; good communities one conform to any rules o The value of organization and leadership  Cliques, Networks, Small Worlds to remain  dread exclusion/expulsion o community’s individual’s  immersed personal identities in o community Outsiders – Howard Becker  conform despite individual differences: still retain individual  characteristics o demography categories – ex. by sex, age, socio-economic status, etc. Culture Definitions Ethnocentrism – The tendency to use one’s own culture as a basis for Role Strain – A result of role conflict, when demands of some roles evaluating other culture. conflict w/ the demands of others. High culture – the set of preferences, tastes, and norms that are Culture – Our uniquely human environment. It includes all of the objects, characteristics of, or supported by, high status groups, including artifacts, institutions, organizations, ideas, and beliefs that make up fine arts, classical music, ballet, and other “highbrow” concerns. the social environment of human life. Popular (or mass) culture – the culture of ordinary people. it includes Organizational culture – the way an organization has learned to deal with those objects, preferences and tastes that are widespread in its environment; it includes norms and values that are subculturally society distinct to the organization. Cultural Capital – a body of knowledge and interpersonal skills that helps Values – socially shared conception of what a group or society considers people to get ahead socially, which often includes learning about good, right, and desirable. and participating in high culture. Norms – the rules of expectations that serve as common guidelines for behavior in daily life, telling us what kinds of behavior are Notes appropriate or inappropriate in specific social situations.  Views on Culture: Folkways – Norms based on popular habits and traditions and ordinary o Functionalist: culture integrative role in society, for social solidarity usages and conventions of everyday life.  b/c organizes behavior  create consensus & stability Mores – Norms that carry moral significance. People believe that mores  cultural elements (shared norms, values, beliefs) from contribute to the general welfare and continuity of the group. social structure  influences economic life Taboos – Powerful social beliefs that a particular act, food, place, etc. is  cultural elements = societal consensus & mutual approval totally repulsive and dangerous. Violation of the taboo is supposed  ex. societies w/ modern values, more trust in others & to be result in immediate punishment. social institutions  more stable democratic gov’t Material Culture – The physical and technological aspects of people’s  civic culture – culture of citizen participation in social & political lives, including all the physical objects that members of a culture life create and us  req. for survival of democracy Non-material culture – People’s values, beliefs, philosophies,  ex. education = response to modernize society conventions, and ideologies: in short all the aspects of a culture o Critical Theory: focus on culture created social tensions, culture = that do not have a physical existence. reflection of economic interests Signs – Gestures, artifacts, or words that express meaningfully represent something other than themselves.  strongly state values indicate conflict btwn 2 societal groups  one approves of given action, other oppose Symbol – A sign whose relationships with something else also expresses a  overtly “general” values benefit some, other’s expense value or evokes an emotion.  ex. legalizing recreational drug Ideal culture – That aspect of culture that lives only in people’s minds. It is the set of values people claim to believe in, profess openly, hold up  cultural values, norms, taboos not good indicator of issues  Marx: criticized Hegel for ignoring role of material, economic for worship and adoration and in day-to-day life pay “lip service” to relations in shaping people’s thoughts & actions Cultural integration – the process whereby parts of a culture (for  material relationships btwn members of society (ex. example, ideal culture and real culture come to fit together and social classes) shape culture (beliefs, values, art, religion) complement one another. not culture & ideas shape society  culture & constituent elements roots = capitalist  Critical theorists: language = tool, subordinate disadvantaged economic relations groups  capitalism = dominant ideology – system of o Feminists (critical): ways culture, through language, shapes thought/beliefs that justify capitalism, perpetuate it, perceptions of reality limits criticism, encourages neo-liberal consumer culture  androcentric (sexist language)  illustrate gender inequality\  modern theorists: other factors = role of state, academics  ex. mankind, policeman, chairman vs. police officer  Frankfurt School: capitalist ideology, mass consumerism,  continued use masculine words = women absent from roles population entertainment promoted capitalist ideals  seen as deviant roles for women o Symbolic Interactionism: culture fro, individual social actor’s face-to-  Values & Religion face interactions & symbols communicated o Weber: set of coherent answers to human existential dilemmas –  values, norms not commands ppl programed w/ birth, sickness, death – make world meaningful  conversation build w/ them, not predetermined  focus = religions role w/ interpreting world  culture != imposed on individual, regulating behavior  less concern w/ social cohesion  culture manage & changed by social actors w/ participation  religion consequences in economic/social life o Cultural Studies Perspective: examined marginalized subculture o Durkheim: set of beliefs, symbols, practices, scared, unites beliefs groups’ claims on dominant culture elements into a socio-religious community  redefine dominate cultural elements w/ alt. meaning & ideas  include all beliefs, rituals w/ intense social bonding or involve  shape own culture outside dominant environment ritual objects  shared critical views: dominate groups use ideas  includes nationalism “civil religion”, TV show/sports fans justify/perpetuate dominance over less powerful b/c excite intense emotion, encourage loyalty & ritual  culture shaped by dominant economic groups, maintain objects status quo  based on study of small-scale, tightly knit, interrelated  others: gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, communities w/ traditional life style geography o religion source of values in West, not most important/sole source  Stuart Hall: influential idea communication req.  conflict model: value sources = economic/class relations encoding/decoding  feminist model: value sources = patriarchal relations  ex. dominant groups encode info in TV shows, decode to  religion = mask for class/gender based ideologies understand hidden content o secularization: organized religion separate from Canadian social life The Protestant ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism – Max Weber  encoding/decoding subtle, unconscious process  decode, based on one’s social/cultural position   Cultural origin = dominant individuals ideological actions, effects depends on individual characteristics  Cultural Integration, Ethnocentrism, Mass Media o Modern societies  specialization of activities, isolation of social  culture an unify & fragment o Production of Culture Perspective: focus origins of culture groups, rapid changing pace prevent high integration levels  material culture (mass media, technology, art, et al produce  new goods/services entering, changing lives; may incompatible symbols) = origin of culture w/ ideal culture & old goods/services  examines labor process behind cultural elements communicated o Result: ppl’s lives = wide variation by region, ethnic, social class, etc. & perpetuated in art mediums  also social institutions/processes increasing cultural integration,  not viewed as results of societal values, time periods, ethnocentrism & cultural comparison, global culture political or social atmosphere o Ethnocentrism: ppl emotionally involved w/ own culture, hard to  Language adopt foreign values, reasoning  comparing may lead to integrating others’ values & behaviors o basic level = sign (written characters), gestures (non-verbal communication) by societal members  ethnocentrism = cultural short-sightedness rooted in upbringing  express thoughts, feelings, ideas, plans, desires o Extreme cultural relativism: ex. cultures promote racism, sexism  words may have intended/unintended meanings violence, genocide can’t be condoned  basis: principles of human rights, also ethnocentric evaluation  both meanings learned as members of a culture w/ observation, trail and error, formal instruction o Mass media: important cultural integration source in modern world  language express/structures thoughts  Communication forms, pass info. to & influence the opinion of  way language structured significantly affect ways audiences w/o personal contact btwn senders & receivers  important invention: printing press (1430s), mass scale book experience world distribution, spread literacy, less reliance on priest/church  diff. languages = diff. conceptual tools to organize/interpret reality  Printed info. (newspapers, handbills, manifestos)  ex. adults socialized in diff. language, cultural assimilation supported French and American revolutions  21 century: camera, radio, telephone, tv, computers  convey = difficult info globally o symbolic interactionists & feminist especially interested o other theorists  language as cultural element  made cultural integration & political rebellion equally  Structural functionalists: subcultures own language possible –ex. 1989 Europe, fall of Communism w/ tech.  express unique concerns & social group cohesion Theory of the Leisure Class – Thorstein Veblen  Family and Socialization Definitions  working-class men sell wage labor, women social Sociology – the systematic study of social behavior, or the stud of society reproduction (home making, child rearing) Family – For the purpose of this chapter, any social unit or set of social  women’s work w/o pay = increase gender inequality relations, that does what families are popularly imagined to do, by o Feminist: women depend on husband similar w/ proles & bourgeoisie whatever means it does so.  dependence easily = subordination  women economically, Nuclear Family – A group that usually consists of a father, a mother, and politically, & socially inferior their children living in the same dwelling. Such a Family comprises  capitalism: men preferential access/treatment labor market no more than three relationships: between spouses, between  affirms existing patriarchal sex differentiations parents and children, and between siblings.  patriarchy common w/ traditionalist religions Extended family – Multiple generations of relatives living together, or  in industrial & pre-industrial societies several adult siblings with their spouses and children who share a  evangelical feminist: encourage traditionalism dwelling and resources. More than three kinds of relationship may  evangelicalism = strategic women’s collective action, be present. empower women, encourage men parental Census Family – A household that includes two spouses – opposite or responsibilities same-sex married or cohabiting (if they have lived together for longer than one year) – with or without never-married children, or  ignores others: single, working, bisexual, lesbian mothers  Symbolic Interactionism Views on Family Life a single aren’t with one or more never-married children. o focus: family ideologies use/development Socialization – the lifelong social learning a person undergoes to become o ex. right-wing promoted “family values” a capable member of society, through social interaction with others and in response to social pressures.  moral/political entrepreneurs appeal to ppl’s concern/interest w/ family lives Primary socialization – learning that takes place in the early years of  channel popular anxieties  hostility against single mothers, person’s life that is crucial to the formation of an individual’s gays, divorced personality.  for policing & imprisonment, against gov’t programs (heal care, Secondary Socialization – Learning that occurs after childhood, usually involving learning specific roles, norms, attitudes, or beliefs, and education)  undermine minority welfare –ex. poor urban African sometimes involving self-imposed learning. Americans, Aboriginals Anticipatory socialization – Learning about and preparing for future roles,  faulty socialization  hurt future generation built on accumulated learning. Resocialization – Learning within social institutions aimed at retraining or o ignores exploitive employers, unresponsive gov’t World Revolution and Family Patterns – William Goode reprogramming people.  reviews global family organization changes 1900 – 1950 o move towards nuclear family model Notes  Functionalists Views on Family Life o smaller family units, self-sustain, separate from larger kinships  b/c increase contraception, decrease fertility rates o family = central societal institution, microcosm of society o dowries, bride payments disappearing  individual members together unified = productive whole o social “morals” change increase acceptance w/ contraception,  familial changes mirror societal changes abortion, cohabitation, premarital sex, divorce o preferred traditional structure, meets most social requirements:  reproduce, socialize young, support work force, meet needs, etc  changes largely b/c industrialization & urbanization of social life o smaller family units more flexibility o ignores other forms satisfy love, attachment, family cohesion needs  Goode predicted education alter women’s roles, increase family o modern industrial societies req. members specialization & diversity, declining # marriage, increase single parent, coordination  complicates family life  Talcott & Bales: family’s labor division key to success cohabitations, divorces o married couples 83%  69% all census families (1986 – 2006)  husband = income/decision maker, authority, leader  unmarried age 15+ outnumber legally married = 52%;  wife = homemaker, nurturer, family’s emotional center 1986 39%  specialization  achieve functions: sexual behavior regulation, reproduction, physical (food, shelter) & o single parent increase 11%  16%, cohabitation 6%  15%  cohabitations more likely dissolve, last shorter psychological (nurture, learning) provisions, children  cohabitating break up avg. 4 years, marriage = 14 years socialization  Another marriage trend: same sex marriage  since 1950s husband/wife roles changing, traditional o 0.6% all Canadian couples: 16.5% married, 83.5% cohabiting specialization not possible/useful –ex. both working o Waite: cohabitation inferior to traditional marriage o half same-sex couples in Toronto 21%, Montreal 18%, Vancouver 10%  less: permanent, extended family support & family crisis support  Concept of Family:  can’t provide economic & psychological benefits o Canadians: nuclear family = ideal, family life important & prioritized o Immerman & Mackey: monogamy universal, natural/inevitable  b/c reduce: STD transmission, out-of-wedlock births, infant o cohabiting relationships & non-nuclear families  ex. extended families common w/ new immigrants morbidity, violent crime, educational issues  usually later adopt local nuclear family forms  result: monogamous societies better function, survival capacity  modified extended family: still live near/rely on members  Critical Theories Views on Family Life o focus: explain family life changes w/ historical political & economic  1.4 million single-parent Canadian families need recognition societal changes o StatsCan: census family definition – allows diversity, tolerant def.  include: same sex, children w/ grandparents o families self-sustaining productive (farming)  consumption units  excludes: family w/ large kin groups (aunts, uncles, cousins) (dual-income for food, shelter, etc.) b/c industrialization  survival dependent on outside income sources o can’t assume social units meeting formal/structural families req. (inc.  babies = “blank slates”, may perpetuate inequalities spouses, parents, siblings) behave like families – reproduce, socialize  Microsociology view: interest w/ socialization process young, support work force  processes shaping one’s social view of “self”, gender  b/c units satisfy structural def. ! behave like deal families; o secondary socialization: post childhood/adolescence  also units behave like ideal families ! no structural def.  non-fundamental b/c less effect w/ self-image, competency o Family groups share features:  involves learning specific roles, norms, attitudes, beliefs  dependency and intimacy – ideal family has attachment &  ex. change jobs, marriage, childbirth interdependent, familiarity & exchange based  occurs outside family, based on already accumulated knowledge  family relations special b/c long term commitments to o Anticipatory socialization: roles hope to enter individual members & family as social unit o Resocialization: become “new kind of person”  sexuality – family’s adult partners socially allowed/expected  Goffman: Total institutions = social institutions resocialization long-term exclusive sexual relationship purpose w/ constant surveillance, punishment  abusive btwn others, taboo: parent-child, siblings  require old identity break down, build new identity  protection – ideal family guard members, in/external dangers  ex. mental patients, convicts, nun, military draftees  parents protect children (accidents, drugs, predators) o Gender Socialization – assign gender identity, absent at birth  power – diff. strength, age social resource btwn members  male, female infants few behavioral differences  more capable protect lesser; imbalance made patriarchy  little boys aggressiveness b/c parents rough handling  violence – families ideally peaceful; violence always existed  recognizable gender difference = mainly social phenomenon  seemed recent increased b/c more record keeping  intentional gender socialization b/c stereotypical expectation  Functionalist views on socialization  most gender socialization = unintentional –ex. tv ads, o top down socialization  children internalize social norms, conform gifts received, children’s room design, gendered names to societal roles & expectations  schools: gender socialization through hidden curriculum  Parsons: top-down learning = societal necessity o Racial & Ethnic Socialization = ways parent shape children learn,  for social conformity & consensus understand race & race relations  social integration characterize ideal society  parents feel instilling racial/ethnic pride, transmitting group  = more members agree w/ norms & values traditions = important; esp. minorities w/ discrimination  better integrated society function smoother  repetitive process, communication many times  ex. women less pay b/c socialized seek lower-paying jobs o Class Socialization = parents communicate life experiences, societal position feelings, workplace experiences o negatives: top-down socialization also produce: anger, superstition, prejudice, racism, homophobia  children learn class structure, place w/i social hierarchy o criticism: can’t completely shape ppl by norms & expectations  shapes child’s values/perceptions, future goals/ambitions  feminists: against assume gender differences natural, inventible  middle/immigrant independence, hard work, highly valued = inequalities justified  children upward mobility advantage w/i meritocracy  ex. women less pay b/c structural barriers  Annette Lareau: stress systematic cultivation of children  ignores bottom-up socialization evidence  poorest/richest taught hard work irrelevant, connections matter  Symbolic interactionists views on socialization  richest can afford hold such notions, poor remain poor o bottom-up socialization  children teach each other  Annette Lareau: poor stress children natural growth  equally important as top-down (teachers/parent taught)  children’s views change, b/c new media or voluntary association o individual socialization through social interactions The Authoritarian Personality – Christopher Jencks & David Riesman o Charles Cooley: children’s self-development capacity achieve through 9 characteristics of authoritarian personality: social interaction; top-down influenced included  Conventionalism: common middle-class values rigid adherence  look-glass self, self-view reflects other’s views  Authoritarian Submission: submissive, uncritical attitude towards  change self to increase pride/decrease embarrassment idealized moral authorities of in-group  others’ effects mediated by self-awareness, attach  Authoritarian Aggression: tendency to lookout, condemn, reject, importance to reference groups (peers, media, family) punish ppl violate conventional values o George Herbert Mead: self-concept 2 components: I and Me  Anti-intraception: oppose subjective, imaginative, tender-mind  I = one’s spontaneous, creative, unique self  Superstition & Stereotyping: belief in mystical determine individual  Me = one’s social purpose self, involve societal norms & values fate, think w/ rigid categories  playground socialization – child’s opportunity practice learned social roles & expectations, helps develops:  Power & Toughness: reoccupation w/ dominance, submission o Identify w/ power figures, exaggerate assertion of str.  generalized other – one’s notions of larger societal  Destructiveness & Cynicism: generalized hostility, vilify human attitudes & expectations assumed for the other  Projectivity: believe world has wild/dangerous things  Socialization – starts at birth, continuous through life o primary socialization: mostly during childhood w/i family context o project unconscious emotional impulses outwards  Preoccupation with sexual going-on: exaggerated concern w/  form individual’s personality, affects later developments sexual occurrences and practices  ex. learn social skills req. w/i socials institutions (school, public)  Macrosociology view: society’s integrative mechanism, for roles Schools and Formal Education Definitions  Education vs. Training Formal Education – education received in accredited schools during o Education = formal teach conceptions, principles, accepted formal teaching sessions knowledge –ex. mathematical rules Informal Education – the variety of ways we undertake to gain knowledge  dev. self-reliance, “how to learn”, general thinking capacity for ourselves outside institutions of formal education –ex. schools o Training = teaching/practice specific routines, achieve desired results colleges and universities  Top-down socialization Training – a process designed to identify and practise specific routines  not transferable, create reliance on other’s expertise that achieve desired results.  Credentialism – advantage few gain valued credentials Hidden Curriculum – Lessons not normally considered part of the o allow socially upward movement, limited entry, high demand jobs academic curriculum that school unintentionally or secondarily o seemingly fair ppl allocation to unequal economic positions provide for students.  unequal credential access passes class positions generationally Meritocracy – any system of rule or advancement where the rewards are  Educational inequalities strictly proportioned to the accomplishment and all people have o schools levels disadvantages b/c same playing field the same opportunity to win these rewards. o women & racial minorities education improved  girls outperform boys all levels; 60% university grad. Notes  continued inequalities not b/c education failure  Views on Education  w/ salary, rank diff. b/c choice: women reluctant o Functionalists: Manifest & Latent Functions enter/compete higher-paid male venues or family duties  focus: education’s human capital functions  majority women enter traditional female programs:  Manifest: secondary edu. = basic literacy, numeracy, skills teaching, social work; not engineering, math  Manifest: tertiary edu. = liberal arts prepare informed citizens  doctoral program women less successful, short careers  professional curriculum prepare workforce members o immigrants, ethnic groups educational obstacles o Critical theorist: focus latent functions  language difficulties, tuition money, unaccepted foreign  schools’ role warehousing unemployed youth credentials, no Canadian work experience  keep “off streets”; esp. during high unemployment times  motivates immigrant’s children, investment  Hidden curriculum: teach social place, gender/social class based o Aboriginals, college/university under-represented  train student patient obedience; essential qualification w/ most  b/c residential schooling, discriminatory educational policies’ society’s non-professional work in capitalist society effects, social, cultural, economic factors, hinder students  edu. institutions id & promote meritorious students  1/3 Aboriginals high school dropout, 1/8 non-Aboriginals  promote meritocratic ethic: success/failure blame self  44% post-secondary education attendants graduate (2006)  dull work prepare w/ routine subordination & boredom  college/trade qualifications parity w/ non-Aboriginals  process contributes survival of existing institutions  8% Aboriginals university degree, 23% non-Aboriginals (2006) o Symbolic interactionists:  urban Aboriginals more likely higher education than rural  student taught dress/behavior according w/ sex, socio-economic o poorer socio-economic background, less likely higher edu classes’ social roles – higher edu. taught professional dress  b/c attend poorer schools, ill-funded, gov’t cut backs shift edu  Canadian Education: expanded post-WW2 burden onto incapable parents o 69 000  200 000 full time university students (1951 – mid1960s)  affluent parents better lobbying discretionary spending,  baby boom generation = higher education demands b/c children fund raising offset cutbacks o early2000s = 700 000 full time university students, 100 000 graduates  post-secondary edu, raise tuition, text-books, technology, o previously school provide basic skills, knowledge discipline for work supplies  socio-economic barrier  high-school graduates expected worked  tuition raised 37% (2000 – 2008) o Currently: formal education valued b/c upward socio-eco mobility  60% aged 18 – 24 attend post-secondary w/ family  education expansion job market educational req. rose earnings >$25 000; 80% w/ family earning
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