Textbook Notes (367,769)
Canada (161,382)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC103H1 (103)
Chapter

ALL SOC103 Reading Sociology (textbook) notes

8 Pages
850 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOC103H1
Professor
Lorne Tepperman
Semester
Summer

Description
Part 1: What is Sociology? 1 – Intellectual Citizenship and Incarnation 3 – Indigenous Spaces in Sociology  Fisher: University/faculty advocate academic views only, retain integrity  Can Sociology dev. w/o Western philosophy vantage point? o not personal, political, moral views, disengage from political debates o Indigenous sociology only mean translated Western language terms?  allow after hours, personal political engagements  theory generation = human; social context, social relative basis  can collective action vs. relevant educational issues o Western social theory privileged b/c widely dispersed o obligation: present students syllabus material, analytical methods o social scientists observation w/i socially mediated framework of own  liberal education value confined to academic values cultural meanings & symbols  no border moral, political sig. w/i larger society  scientists’ realities help dev. theory o agree w/ Weber, maintain intellectual integrity o social theory critiques = intellectual colonialism  politicize university = academic mission disaster  acknowledge different realities o critique: not all politics same o Theories: understand world, science theories generate knowledge  1. fundamental human rights, constitutional form, law  also determine knowledge legitimacy  2. partisan contention in parliamentary democracy  indigenous knowledge i.e. alternative knowledge(s) exist  1 type relevant w/i university, 2 type depends on 1 typest o indigenous knowledge ~ object, root w/ realities & contextual  Noam Chomsky: writer’s intellectual responsibility = deliver truth  is relationship w/ life & way of life o give truth as best as one can, of things that matter, to right audience  incl. traditional norms, values, mental constructs that guide,  writer responsibility as moral agent, truth matters of human organize, regulate ppl’s way making sense of their world sign. to audience capable of acting on it o diff. substantively from Western knowledge o Author: truth seeking = moral activity o indigenous scholars: indigenous knowledge, not binary opp. western  irreducible part of intellectual citizenship knowledge  ex. Student investigation w/ Colombian Coke case dealings  fills ethical, knowledge gaps in Eurocentric edu., research  ties university teachings w/ terrorism & murder  Canadian sociology: descriptive info. of indigenous ppl’s social issues o incarnate connection btwn stable, peaceful, affluent sociological o Aboriginal Canadian contributions recognition marginal inquiry & exploited terrorized impoverished circumstance studied o only statistical analysis of social indicators  ex. death, suicides, infant mortality rates 2 – Anticipating Burawoy: John Porter’s Public Sociology  focuses deficits, problems not strengths, positive aspects  Burawoy: current sociology 4 faces o sociology indigenization b/c globalization, incl. indigenous concepts o Professional – mainstream, quantitative, scientific, dominate, most  issue w/ communicability & universalism limits prestigious sociology; audience = scholarly community o Policy – applied professional sociology, commissioned by client 4 – Reading Reflexively  solve problem identified, directed by client (gov’t, corps)  Sociological narratives quality recognition = major dev. o Critical – direct scholar audience, reflexive o narratives multiplicity: interest w/ narratives constructed, work,  address fundamental value questions, often radical -ex. Marxism become hegemonic, discredited o Public – applied critical sociology, 2 types  Traditional Public Sociology – newspaper opinion pieces 5 – Francophone and Anglophone Sociologist in Canada  written by scholars, for mass, educated public  scientific growth adds antagonism btwn French & English Canadians  Organic public Sociology – enter dialogic relations w/ o science req. national institutions: universities, research centers disadvantaged/oppressed groups w/ goal = help solve problems o but universal principle driven, transcend boundaries, politics o 4 sociology types can/should combine under “public sociology” o scientific research progresses increasingly national & international umbrella, create “value science” discipline, solve world’s problems  both forces separate French & English sociologists groups  public sociology core = professional, scientific sociology  Anglo & Franco sociologists both 3 frustration areas  value neutrality doctrine req. remove b/c sociology accountable o 1. congested job market, mostly English scholars b/c competition to society as a whole, not just scientific community  2/3 Canadian English sociologists US educated  public sociology basis = social democratic values, objectively o 2. Americanized undergrad. courses & research publication protest good b/c serve humanities interests  “extinction of Canadian university”, “connaissance d’ici”  ultimate goal = provide guaranteed universal human rights o 3. Canadian sociology: historical, macrosociological, interdisciplinary globally; b/c existing neo-liberal based rights inadequate  American: presents, quantitative, microsociological  John Porter’s Vertical Mosaic refuted Canada classes, equal opportunities  Quebec & Canada: want establish nationalized societal science o later career: championed New Liberal “Public Sociology”  Canadian university edu. boom 1960s  1. Reflexive and Morally Committed o French-Quebec, English-Canadian sociologist gain autonomy  rejected doctrine of value neutrality; sociologists assess &  Growing separation b/c nationalization of sociological field criticize any social order serving particular interests o Result: faculty decrease foreign credentials, more Canadian materials  2. Based on Solid Science o Quebec-ization & Canadian-ization created 2 isolated linguistically  A. methodological approach grand scale & synthetic distinct scientific communities; new professors continue divide  B. comparative & international scope, nations = basic  French sociology professors regrouped, own disciplinary society analysis unit w/ nation’s unique features considered w/ own journals, research centers, conferences  C. quantitatively sophisticated: set of empirical indicators o Quebec scholarship: strict unilingual principle (variables) for social develop similar w/ economic models o English: kept official bilingual, de facto English dominated institution (just reward system, open democratic political process) o interprovincial collaboration, Quebec universities isolated  3. Politically Engaged and Practical  more likely collaboration w/ US, UK researcher than Quebec  use empirical progress measure for political purpose  Internationalization trends pressure  views social dev. & moral progress related o effected Quebec: English main exchange & publication language o Porter’s work similar w/ Burawoy’s o Less Canadian/Quebec focused attention/publication, more US o scholars choose btwn Quebec/Canada-ization vs. internationalization Part 15: Environment 59 –A Canadian Catastrophe in Copenhagen  Protests  climate change’s environmental challenges, gov’t accountability problems o Media: focused environmentalists protests tactics o globalization “governance w/o gov’t”, power shift  blockades useful gain media access  away nation-state’s, can’t hold TNCs accountable service citizen  frame project = controversial, little attention to substantive interests w/i national borders environmental claims o strongest countries left “statist” period thinking, accountability gaps o Websites: encouraged activism, mostly letter writing  climate governance: forms multistakeholder hybrid partnerships, market  gave instructions, sample letters, directions on talking points private partnerships, elite governmental partnerships  use celebrity names encourage activism, not as news hooks o non-hierarchical modes, power diffused w/ multiple actors  Local Democracy & Environmental Governance  actors comply w/ political order b/c perceive overall quality o Media: examined non-state actors gain environmental governance social order’s institutions, norms legitimate access, reconceptualise citizenship = participatory, ecological o legitimacy req. procedural logic (predictable rules by legit actors) &  focus: local decision making w/ environmental governance consequential logic (rules led collective problem solving)  provincial gov’t pass decision making power to local gov’t  transnational governance absent citizen accountability  gov’t reasoning = respect, empower local communities o scholars: various democratic innovation address “democratic deficit”  environmental response = pass buck, locals ill-informed = enhance global governance legitimacy o Websites: encouraged keep decision local w/ letter writing tactics  input legitimacy focus: concern = participation in decision  relationships btwn environmentalists & new media = authority & making process represent non-human nature, asymmetrical dependence  output legitimacy focus: concern = laws/rules quality o websites greater range of space for claims, nuanced claims o increase accountability  increase legitimacy  allows movements disseminate info.  5 accountability dimensions: transparency, liability, ctrllability, o environmental produced webpages as communication medium responsibility, responsiveness efficiency = uncertain o accountability models competing:  delegation models vs. participation models 62 – Regulating Agricultural Biotechnology in Canada: Paradoxes and  both I-NGOs = deliberative & watchdog functions b/c more Conflicts of Closed System single-minded, agile than states = media advantage  fed. gov’t dual role w/ biotechnology: consumption regulator & promoter  I-NGOs = accountability claim from below economic growth o info. disclosure = tool strengthen accountability w/ transparency  study: gaps w/ regulatory approval process b/c contradictory roles  moral & political imperative w/ environmental governance o focus genetic engineering, substantial equivalence flawed concept  problem: “governance by disclosure”, procedural emphasis   Health Canada & Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) responsible counterproductive, divert time/resource regulating biotechnology  ex. Copenhagen 2009 UN CC Conference “Governance-by-disclosure” o CFI responsible assessing genetically engineered organisms’ o major leaks b/c transparency demands environmental safety not Environment Canada  result: increase closed doors decision making, further objections o regulatory agencies compelled establish solid working relations w/  7000 civil society representatives to 1000, to 90 last day regulated industries, ensure effective & enforceable regulation sys. o Canada performance obstructive, condemned by IGNOs  CFIA agricultural biotech regulation criticism: conflict of interest o product regulated, not process; doesn’t consider secondary effects 60 – The Production of Modernity in Classic American Whale Hunting  transferring genes imprecise, random  may cause physical  d disruption in genome = biosafety risk o substantial equivalence = safety assessment criterion  genetically engineered crop consider substantially equivalent if 61 – Comparing News Media and the Internet as Sites for Environmental there’s conventionally/organically grown counterpart Movement Activism for Jumbo Pass  however, genetically modified more risks b/c foreign  Past: social movement req. mass media gain visibility, reach potential  concept created to ignore biochemical/toxicological tests supporters, engage opponents & gov’t w/ debate  discourage, inhibit informative scientific research o req. make issue news-worthy, “asymmetrical dependency” o increase biotechnology, genetic engineering demands greater o study: eco-political w/ Jumbo Pass, proposed BC ski resort technological application, “genetic treadmill”  analyze Internet function’s as open public sphere than  biotechnology negative repercussion solution = new gen. of traditional mass media for environmentalist communication technology that cause problem in first place  Tourism, Development, Ecological Risk  conclusion: regulatory system ignores broader social justice, politico- o Media: discourse w/ appropriateness interaction w/ mountain economic, ethical concerns w/ biotechnology environment; mostly Jumbo Pass need protection from development o genetic engineering tech fail meet scientific expectations promoted  Environmentalist news sources viewed = authoritative knowers by industry developers & gov’t  environmentalists = representative for animals  skiing = ecologically illegitimate interaction mode 63 – The Science of Politics of Polar Ice  Pro-resort discourse: cite tourism, region’s economic dev.  science = social practice, generates knowledge through practical activity  views mountain = experience values, not resources  relation btwn science & politics:  skiing = economically beneficial, not interaction mode o politics = historically variable ensemble of institutions & practices o Websites: mostly focus w/ protecting grizzly bears o political = contestation of what constitutes politics  additional environmental issues: climate change o science can legitimate repressive/anti-democratic politics  cite nearby glacier predicted melt  also introduce new understanding, sense of material world  provided alternative to proposed Jumbo Resort  Ice sheets = land-based, last ice age remnants  cites local ski hills under capacity, Jumbo excessive  Sea ice = freeze periodically winter, melts summer, on ocean  Sea ice melting  nation states lay claim ocean floor b/c oil reserves  Response sea ice melting, nation states modernist politics, asserting o UN Convention Law of the Sea: exclusive economic zone = 200nm off sovereignty over territory w/ scientific practices nation’s coastline, exclusive access to resource under see floor o largely ignore climate change implications, sea levels rising  can extend if continental shelf past 200nm limit  ex. surface melt-water channel down through Greenland ice o Russia, United States, Denmark, Norway, Canada border Arctic sheets to bedrock, lubricates btwn ice sheet & bedrock, may  all co-operatively pursue claims w/ UNCLOS, req. scientific basis dislodge ice shelves & disintegrate  ex. Canada $40 million (2008 – 2013) invested map sea floor Part 2: Culture 6 – Masculinity and Internet Pornography  Cluster 1 (1960s – 1970s)  connection btwn masculinity’s social construction & porn consumption o emphasized partners seen equals, flexible roles often presumed than examined  authors agree w/ women’s movements & increase women o mostly men’s porn use contribute to gender inequality financial independence w/ labor force involvement o little work w/ understand how porn representations involve w/ o endorsed new relationships forms exploration production of hegemonic masculinities  possible break from traditional dating/marriage models o modern pornography basis = men displayed women’s bodies o promoted couple ensure women’s sexual satisfaction  photography = key factor, strong desire for sex o stress openness & honesty commutation  technology not neutral medium for transmission of sex o influence: gender relation change, alt. life style  it changes how & what we see; defined sexual difference  feminist movement great momentum  promised men power take ctrl of sex  Cluster 2 (1980s – mid 1990s)  Comments on Robert Jenson (radical feminist) porn critiques o emphasized relations w/ self, self-examination o recognize Internet revolution porn delivery, didn’t consider  be own princes, self-love instead of wait rescue/validate technology simply delivery means for existing produce o promoted women self-love above all relationships concerns  critique: whether internet change ways porn affect viewers  cautioned women emotional investment w/ relationships  promoted women equal treatment needs o technology is important b/c increase men’s ability ctrl porn experiences, in turn ctrl women’s bodies o framed relationships challenges w/ dysfunctional vocab  critique: porn also involve w/ technological confrontation btwn  less confidence w/ equal partnership reality men & nature, affects meaning of masculinity o influence: reactionary neo-liberalism in NA  Porn moved online: categorized, collapses differences  fewer gender-sensitive policies, feminism less momentum o min. complexities of desire, emotion, bodily response Cluster 3 (mid-1990s – late 2000s) o promise fulfill viewers’ desire see truth of sex, as it is ctrlled o promote egalitarian relationship, emphasized distinctly feminine & o porn’s central concept = ctrl of women by men masculine personae needs  porn creates fantasy, all women = lustful  men’s ctrl less  promote romance, chivalry, male leadership o disagree w/ feminist movement, perceived family values erosions about dominance than request women’s inherent aspect  mainstream porn stages confrontation btwn Man and nature o emphasize religion/spirituality importance w/ intimacy  on-going desire establish ctrl over nature by bringing it to o influence: neo-liberal, neo-conservative, post-feminist order, central to masculine status  religious culture, US: New Christian Right o paradox: internet porn promotes standardization, yet internet fragments pornographic experience 8 – The Bonds of Things o democratization of desires – technology allow anyone participate,  symbolic interactionism: study human-object interactions  opened more unconventional bodies & desires o focus domestic artifacts, applicable w/ human environments  yet amateur porn can’t break constraints of hegemonic  Domestic artifacts reveal self/social relationship stories o Mapping – info. interviews provide about the way objects plot their masculinity from w/i enframing  sex and boredom: porn representations reduce & narrows sexual desires social network, represent their cosmology & ideology o eventually become boring o Referencing – comments about history, aesthetics, customary use of o internet porn, overcome problem w/ greater interactivity & diversity objects  Agency: distinguish btwn active/passive object use  but sameness quality, body parts endlessly repeated o Heidegger, doesn’t advocate technology rejection o Intrinsically active – objects intend physical manipulation  shouldn’t push boredom away, rather experience what it tell us o Intrinsically passive – objects intend contemplation about the condition of our lives o Mode: subtle diff. active/passive use regardless original intentions  Active mode – manipulated; Passive mode –contemplated 7 – Examining Cultural Change and Ideas about Gender Equality in  Normal/Alien use – standard/non-standard use Relationship Self-Help Books o Alien use b/c recycled object, refashioned w/ creative concern  advice book message changing b/c cultural & structural changes  Status objects – yield owner’s rank info. o effect heterosexual men & women intimate life views o Apparent cost – all domestic object w/ political function o examine message change: illuminate gender relations, social o more appropriate than actual cost structures, ideologies  Esteem objects – symbolize personal self-esteem individual achieved in  also reflect ongoing social change debates intimate life spheres: parenthood/marriage o key N. A. individual guidance socio-economic structures now  Collective object – represent ties w/ groups outside family unclear/insecure o national symbols, membership w/ voluntary associations  church, families, intimate relationships, jobs, career  Stigma objects – thing associated w/ spoiled identities, aging o self-help books new guidance alt. b/c accessibility & low cost  Disidentifying objects – make false claims, inflate status  Opposing self-help book research views:  Social facilitators – turn ppl into temp. partners/opponents, public o literature champions conservation/regressive relationships demonstration skills & knowledge; ex. card games, puzzles approaches vs. egalitarian relationships  Occupational objects – use orient conversation towards topics 9 – Nationalism from Below  Exotic objects to indigenous objects ratio – info. of informant’s reference  traditionalist view: nationalism invented by European cultural elites groups, attitudes towards local society, status o pass down w/ propaganda to masses  Time indicators: sign of time in decoration o Carlton Hayes: propagation nationalism 3 factors o indicates self’s position in time, attitudes w/ history, tradition,  1. nationalism doctrine elaborated by intellectuals, change, continuity  2. citizen satisfied, financial gains w/ message  promoted o Temporal Homogeneity – room w/ artifacts same time  3. popular mind, shaped by mass-education o Temporal Heterogeneity – mixing objects various eras o Miroslav Hroch: agree w/ Hayes’s trickle-down theory  Size: non-standard sizes impact meaning  Phase A. scholarly interests w/ language, culture history of  Way of production – distinguish btwn handmade & machine made oppressed nationality  Display syntax: way objects displayed relation to each other  Phase B. period of patriotic agitation  Phase C. mass national movement rise o co-located artifacts – artifacts influence by surrounding  diff. reading depending on display setting  Critiques: historical revolutions – intellectual leaders displaced when o Highlighting – display attract attention to artifact followers rose up o Understating – display deflects attention from artifact o intellectuals, professionals & masses not Weberian parties  rather social aggregates, limited behavioral uniformity o Clustering/dispersing – manipulate space separating objects o Status consistency/inconsistency – objects convey status level, o instead: folk traditions & ethnic identity connection egalitarianism vs. elitism  folk songs continued languages, kept nationality spirits o Degree of conformity – extent household conforms w/ current  ex. Serbians under Ottomans, Turks antagonists interior decoration common-sense rules  folk poetry from masses same effects o Flavor – room’s taste/sense general, impression  folk tradition reveals ppl’s collective consciousness  conclusion: elites & masses not separate, part of complex/common cultural universe Part 3: Socialization 10 – Online Interactions Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Situated  present when social norms perceptions shared by group w/i Performances and Sexual Education same normative environment  study Internet’s role in MSM (men seeking men) sexual lives o alcohol ctrl mechanisms: subjective perceive ease – individual-level o how men learn participate/interact w/ online sex-seeking process risk drinking risk o also: male online interaction role w/ sexual edu.  collective level, decreased institutional rates in problematic  men restricted w/ online sexual search self-presentation students’ drinking report b/c stricter enforcement noted, but o rules govern man’s online sexual search “front” presentation inconsistent  men learned “legitimate performances” of self w/ appropriate  Solution 2 areas targeted  comprehensive address post-secondary online setting/purpose through online interactions drinking  possibly diff w/ one’s perceived self o 1. integrate plural institutional pathways (normative regulatory)  internet allow present numerous/diverse “selves”, o 2. specification of analytical levels (subjective, collective) appropriate w/ diff. settings  health lifestyles not random behaviors, deliberate individual choices  rules highlight certain physical characteristics’ dominance o instead: represent socially conditions patterns at junctions of  self “e-presentations” structure reflect gay communities’ sexual individuals’ life chances & choices desire discourse & website’s nature  life choices = process of agency, individual critically evaluate &  ex. age, race, physical attractiveness, masculine/feminine choose course of action  life changes = opportunities structures conferred to individuals o reflect Goffman’s “given” “given off” concepts:  potential partner active/passive constructions influence rules following their location in the social structure  own & other’s actions = signals, shape social interactions o Giddens: human activity 3 specific modalities:  ex. Younger presence w/i Mature chat-room  modalities = pathways higher education influence post- secondary drinking  Online interaction = sexual edu. conduit, esp. new comers o learn sexual health risk from websites & members  normative pathway - link w/ negotiate drinking-related o build/maintain “erotic capital”: sexually disadvantage men trade-off sanctio
More Less

Related notes for SOC103H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit