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All SOC103 Reading Sociology (textbook) notes (w/o highlight)

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Lorne Tepperman

Part 1: What is Sociology? 1 – Intellectual Citizenship and Incarnation 3 – Indigenous Spaces in Sociology  Fisher: University/faculty advocate academic views only, retain integrity  Can Sociology dev. w/o Western philosophy vantage point? o not personal, political, moral views, disengage from political debates o Indigenous sociology only mean translated Western language terms?  allow after hours, personal political engagements  theory generation = human; social context, social relative basis  can collective action vs. relevant educational issues o Western social theory privileged b/c widely dispersed o obligation: present students syllabus material, analytical methods o social scientists observation w/i socially mediated framework of own  liberal education value confined to academic values cultural meanings & symbols  no border moral, political sig. w/i larger society  scientists’ realities help dev. theory o agree w/ Weber, maintain intellectual integrity o social theory critiques = intellectual colonialism  politicize university = academic mission disaster  acknowledge different realities o critique: not all politics same o Theories: understand world, science theories generate knowledge  1. fundamental human rights, constitutional form, law  also determine knowledge legitimacy  2. partisan contention in parliamentary democracy  indigenous knowledge i.e. alternative knowledge(s) exist  1 type relevant w/i university, 2 type depends on 1 typest o indigenous knowledge ~ object, root w/ realities & contextual  Noam Chomsky: writer’s intellectual responsibility = deliver truth  is relationship w/ life & way of life o give truth as best as one can, of things that matter, to right audience  incl. traditional norms, values, mental constructs that guide,  writer responsibility as moral agent, truth matters of human organize, regulate ppl’s way making sense of their world sign. to audience capable of acting on it o diff. substantively from Western knowledge o Author: truth seeking = moral activity o indigenous scholars: indigenous knowledge, not binary opp. western  irreducible part of intellectual citizenship knowledge  ex. Student investigation w/ Colombian Coke case dealings  fills ethical, knowledge gaps in Eurocentric edu., research  ties university teachings w/ terrorism & murder  Canadian sociology: descriptive info. of indigenous ppl’s social issues o incarnate connection btwn stable, peaceful, affluent sociological o Aboriginal Canadian contributions recognition marginal inquiry & exploited terrorized impoverished circumstance studied o only statistical analysis of social indicators  ex. death, suicides, infant mortality rates 2 – Anticipating Burawoy: John Porter’s Public Sociology  focuses deficits, problems not strengths, positive aspects  Burawoy: current sociology 4 faces o sociology indigenization b/c globalization, incl. indigenous concepts o Professional – mainstream, quantitative, scientific, dominate, most  issue w/ communicability & universalism limits prestigious sociology; audience = scholarly community o Policy – applied professional sociology, commissioned by client 4 – Reading Reflexively  solve problem identified, directed by client (gov’t, corps)  Sociological narratives quality recognition = major dev. o Critical – direct scholar audience, reflexive o narratives multiplicity: interest w/ narratives constructed, work,  address fundamental value questions, often radical -ex. Marxism become hegemonic, discredited o Public – applied critical sociology, 2 types  Traditional Public Sociology – newspaper opinion pieces 5 – Francophone and Anglophone Sociologist in Canada  written by scholars, for mass, educated public  scientific growth adds antagonism btwn French & English Canadians  Organic public Sociology – enter dialogic relations w/ o science req. national institutions: universities, research centers disadvantaged/oppressed groups w/ goal = help solve problems o but universal principle driven, transcend boundaries, politics o 4 sociology types can/should combine under “public sociology” o scientific research progresses increasingly national & international umbrella, create “value science” discipline, solve world’s problems  both forces separate French & English sociologists groups  public sociology core = professional, scientific sociology  Anglo & Franco sociologists both 3 frustration areas  value neutrality doctrine req. remove b/c sociology accountable o 1. congested job market, mostly English scholars b/c competition to society as a whole, not just scientific community  2/3 Canadian English sociologists US educated  public sociology basis = social democratic values, objectively o 2. Americanized undergrad. courses & research publication protest good b/c serve humanities interests  “extinction of Canadian university”, “connaissance d’ici”  ultimate goal = provide guaranteed universal human rights o 3. Canadian sociology: historical, macrosociological, interdisciplinary globally; b/c existing neo-liberal based rights inadequate  American: presents, quantitative, microsociological  John Porter’s Vertical Mosaic refuted Canada classes, equal opportunities  Quebec & Canada: want establish nationalized societal science o later career: championed New Liberal “Public Sociology”  Canadian university edu. boom 1960s  1. Reflexive and Morally Committed o French-Quebec, English-Canadian sociologist gain autonomy  rejected doctrine of value neutrality; sociologists assess &  Growing separation b/c nationalization of sociological field criticize any social order serving particular interests o Result: faculty decrease foreign credentials, more Canadian materials  2. Based on Solid Science o Quebec-ization & Canadian-ization created 2 isolated linguistically  A. methodological approach grand scale & synthetic distinct scientific communities; new professors continue divide  B. comparative & international scope, nations = basic  French sociology professors regrouped, own disciplinary society analysis unit w/ nation’s unique features considered w/ own journals, research centers, conferences  C. quantitatively sophisticated: set of empirical indicators o Quebec scholarship: strict unilingual principle (variables) for social develop similar w/ economic models o English: kept official bilingual, de facto English dominated institution (just reward system, open democratic political process) o interprovincial collaboration, Quebec universities isolated  3. Politically Engaged and Practical  more likely collaboration w/ US, UK researcher than Quebec  use empirical progress measure for political purpose  Internationalization trends pressure  views social dev. & moral progress related o effected Quebec: English main exchange & publication language o Porter’s work similar w/ Burawoy’s o Less Canadian/Quebec focused attention/publication, more US o scholars choose btwn Quebec/Canada-ization vs. internationalization Part 15: Environment 59 –A Canadian Catastrophe in Copenhagen  Protests  climate change’s environmental challenges, gov’t accountability problems o Media: focused environmentalists protests tactics o globalization “governance w/o gov’t”, power shift  blockades useful gain media access  away nation-state’s, can’t hold TNCs accountable service citizen  frame project = controversial, little attention to substantive interests w/i national borders environmental claims o strongest countries left “statist” period thinking, accountability gaps o Websites: encouraged activism, mostly letter writing  climate governance: forms multistakeholder hybrid partnerships, market  gave instructions, sample letters, directions on talking points private partnerships, elite governmental partnerships  use celebrity names encourage activism, not as news hooks o non-hierarchical modes, power diffused w/ multiple actors  Local Democracy & Environmental Governance  actors comply w/ political order b/c perceive overall quality o Media: examined non-state actors gain environmental governance social order’s institutions, norms legitimate access, reconceptualise citizenship = participatory, ecological o legitimacy req. procedural logic (predictable rules by legit actors) &  focus: local decision making w/ environmental governance consequential logic (rules led collective problem solving)  provincial gov’t pass decision making power to local gov’t  transnational governance absent citizen accountability  gov’t reasoning = respect, empower local communities o scholars: various democratic innovation address “democratic deficit”  environmental response = pass buck, locals ill-informed = enhance global governance legitimacy o Websites: encouraged keep decision local w/ letter writing tactics  input legitimacy focus: concern = participation in decision  relationships btwn environmentalists & new media = authority & making process represent non-human nature, asymmetrical dependence  output legitimacy focus: concern = laws/rules quality o websites greater range of space for claims, nuanced claims o increase accountability  increase legitimacy  allows movements disseminate info.  5 accountability dimensions: transparency, liability, ctrllability, o environmental produced webpages as communication medium responsibility, responsiveness efficiency = uncertain o accountability models competing:  delegation models vs. participation models 62 – Regulating Agricultural Biotechnology in Canada: Paradoxes and  both I-NGOs = deliberative & watchdog functions b/c more Conflicts of Closed System single-minded, agile than states = media advantage  fed. gov’t dual role w/ biotechnology: consumption regulator & promoter  I-NGOs = accountability claim from below economic growth o info. disclosure = tool strengthen accountability w/ transparency  study: gaps w/ regulatory approval process b/c contradictory roles  moral & political imperative w/ environmental governance o focus genetic engineering, substantial equivalence flawed concept  problem: “governance by disclosure”, procedural emphasis   Health Canada & Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) responsible counterproductive, divert time/resource regulating biotechnology  ex. Copenhagen 2009 UN CC Conference “Governance-by-disclosure” o CFI responsible assessing genetically engineered organisms’ o major leaks b/c transparency demands environmental safety not Environment Canada  result: increase closed doors decision making, further objections o regulatory agencies compelled establish solid working relations w/  7000 civil society representatives to 1000, to 90 last day regulated industries, ensure effective & enforceable regulation sys. o Canada performance obstructive, condemned by IGNOs  CFIA agricultural biotech regulation criticism: conflict of interest o product regulated, not process; doesn’t consider secondary effects 60 – The Production of Modernity in Classic American Whale Hunting  transferring genes imprecise, random  may cause physical  d disruption in genome = biosafety risk o substantial equivalence = safety assessment criterion  genetically engineered crop consider substantially equivalent if 61 – Comparing News Media and the Internet as Sites for Environmental there’s conventionally/organically grown counterpart Movement Activism for Jumbo Pass  however, genetically modified more risks b/c foreign  Past: social movement req. mass media gain visibility, reach potential  concept created to ignore biochemical/toxicological tests supporters, engage opponents & gov’t w/ debate  discourage, inhibit informative scientific research o req. make issue news-worthy, “asymmetrical dependency” o increase biotechnology, genetic engineering demands greater o study: eco-political w/ Jumbo Pass, proposed BC ski resort technological application, “genetic treadmill”  analyze Internet function’s as open public sphere than  biotechnology negative repercussion solution = new gen. of traditional mass media for environmentalist communication technology that cause problem in first place  Tourism, Development, Ecological Risk  conclusion: regulatory system ignores broader social justice, politico- o Media: discourse w/ appropriateness interaction w/ mountain economic, ethical concerns w/ biotechnology environment; mostly Jumbo Pass need protection from development o genetic engineering tech fail meet scientific expectations promoted  Environmentalist news sources viewed = authoritative knowers by industry developers & gov’t  environmentalists = representative for animals  skiing = ecologically illegitimate interaction mode 63 – The Science of Politics of Polar Ice  Pro-resort discourse: cite tourism, region’s economic dev.  science = social practice, generates knowledge through practical activity  views mountain = experience values, not resources  relation btwn science & politics:  skiing = economically beneficial, not interaction mode o politics = historically variable ensemble of institutions & practices o Websites: mostly focus w/ protecting grizzly bears o political = contestation of what constitutes politics  additional environmental issues: climate change o science can legitimate repressive/anti-democratic politics  cite nearby glacier predicted melt  also introduce new understanding, sense of material world  provided alternative to proposed Jumbo Resort  Ice sheets = land-based, last ice age remnants  cites local ski hills under capacity, Jumbo excessive  Sea ice = freeze periodically winter, melts summer, on ocean  Sea ice melting  nation states lay claim ocean floor b/c oil reserves  Response sea ice melting, nation states modernist politics, asserting o UN Convention Law of the Sea: exclusive economic zone = 200nm off sovereignty over territory w/ scientific practices nation’s coastline, exclusive access to resource under see floor o largely ignore climate change implications, sea levels rising  can extend if continental shelf past 200nm limit  ex. surface melt-water channel down through Greenland ice o Russia, United States, Denmark, Norway, Canada border Arctic sheets to bedrock, lubricates btwn ice sheet & bedrock, may  all co-operatively pursue claims w/ UNCLOS, req. scientific basis dislodge ice shelves & disintegrate  ex. Canada $40 million (2008 – 2013) invested map sea floor Part 2: Culture 6 – Masculinity and Internet Pornography  Cluster 1 (1960s – 1970s)  connection btwn masculinity’s social construction & porn consumption o emphasized partners seen equals, flexible roles often presumed than examined  authors agree w/ women’s movements & increase women o mostly men’s porn use contribute to gender inequality financial independence w/ labor force involvement o little work w/ understand how porn representations involve w/ o endorsed new relationships forms exploration production of hegemonic masculinities  possible break from traditional dating/marriage models o modern pornography basis = men displayed women’s bodies o promoted couple ensure women’s sexual satisfaction  photography = key factor, strong desire for sex o stress openness & honesty commutation  technology not neutral medium for transmission of sex o influence: gender relation change, alt. life style  it changes how & what we see; defined sexual difference  feminist movement great momentum  promised men power take ctrl of sex  Cluster 2 (1980s – mid 1990s)  Comments on Robert Jenson (radical feminist) porn critiques o emphasized relations w/ self, self-examination o recognize Internet revolution porn delivery, didn’t consider  be own princes, self-love instead of wait rescue/validate technology simply delivery means for existing produce o promoted women self-love above all relationships concerns  critique: whether internet change ways porn affect viewers  cautioned women emotional investment w/ relationships  promoted women equal treatment needs o technology is important b/c increase men’s ability ctrl porn experiences, in turn ctrl women’s bodies o framed relationships challenges w/ dysfunctional vocab  critique: porn also involve w/ technological confrontation btwn  less confidence w/ equal partnership reality men & nature, affects meaning of masculinity o influence: reactionary neo-liberalism in NA  Porn moved online: categorized, collapses differences  fewer gender-sensitive policies, feminism less momentum o min. complexities of desire, emotion, bodily response Cluster 3 (mid-1990s – late 2000s) o promise fulfill viewers’ desire see truth of sex, as it is ctrlled o promote egalitarian relationship, emphasized distinctly feminine & o porn’s central concept = ctrl of women by men masculine personae needs  porn creates fantasy, all women = lustful  men’s ctrl less  promote romance, chivalry, male leadership o disagree w/ feminist movement, perceived family values erosions about dominance than request women’s inherent aspect  mainstream porn stages confrontation btwn Man and nature o emphasize religion/spirituality importance w/ intimacy  on-going desire establish ctrl over nature by bringing it to o influence: neo-liberal, neo-conservative, post-feminist order, central to masculine status  religious culture, US: New Christian Right o paradox: internet porn promotes standardization, yet internet fragments pornographic experience 8 – The Bonds of Things o democratization of desires – technology allow anyone participate,  symbolic interactionism: study human-object interactions  opened more unconventional bodies & desires o focus domestic artifacts, applicable w/ human environments  yet amateur porn can’t break constraints of hegemonic  Domestic artifacts reveal self/social relationship stories o Mapping – info. interviews provide about the way objects plot their masculinity from w/i enframing  sex and boredom: porn representations reduce & narrows sexual desires social network, represent their cosmology & ideology o eventually become boring o Referencing – comments about history, aesthetics, customary use of o internet porn, overcome problem w/ greater interactivity & diversity objects  Agency: distinguish btwn active/passive object use  but sameness quality, body parts endlessly repeated o Heidegger, doesn’t advocate technology rejection o Intrinsically active – objects intend physical manipulation  shouldn’t push boredom away, rather experience what it tell us o Intrinsically passive – objects intend contemplation about the condition of our lives o Mode: subtle diff. active/passive use regardless original intentions  Active mode – manipulated; Passive mode –contemplated 7 – Examining Cultural Change and Ideas about Gender Equality in  Normal/Alien use – standard/non-standard use Relationship Self-Help Books o Alien use b/c recycled object, refashioned w/ creative concern  advice book message changing b/c cultural & structural changes  Status objects – yield owner’s rank info. o effect heterosexual men & women intimate life views o Apparent cost – all domestic object w/ political function o examine message change: illuminate gender relations, social o more appropriate than actual cost structures, ideologies  Esteem objects – symbolize personal self-esteem individual achieved in  also reflect ongoing social change debates intimate life spheres: parenthood/marriage o key N. A. individual guidance socio-economic structures now  Collective object – represent ties w/ groups outside family unclear/insecure o national symbols, membership w/ voluntary associations  church, families, intimate relationships, jobs, career  Stigma objects – thing associated w/ spoiled identities, aging o self-help books new guidance alt. b/c accessibility & low cost  Disidentifying objects – make false claims, inflate status  Opposing self-help book research views:  Social facilitators – turn ppl into temp. partners/opponents, public o literature champions conservation/regressive relationships demonstration skills & knowledge; ex. card games, puzzles approaches vs. egalitarian relationships  Occupational objects – use orient conversation towards topics 9 – Nationalism from Below  Exotic objects to indigenous objects ratio – info. of informant’s reference  traditionalist view: nationalism invented by European cultural elites groups, attitudes towards local society, status o pass down w/ propaganda to masses  Time indicators: sign of time in decoration o Carlton Hayes: propagation nationalism 3 factors o indicates self’s position in time, attitudes w/ history, tradition,  1. nationalism doctrine elaborated by intellectuals, change, continuity  2. citizen satisfied, financial gains w/ message  promoted o Temporal Homogeneity – room w/ artifacts same time  3. popular mind, shaped by mass-education o Temporal Heterogeneity – mixing objects various eras o Miroslav Hroch: agree w/ Hayes’s trickle-down theory  Size: non-standard sizes impact meaning  Phase A. scholarly interests w/ language, culture history of  Way of production – distinguish btwn handmade & machine made oppressed nationality  Display syntax: way objects displayed relation to each other  Phase B. period of patriotic agitation  Phase C. mass national movement rise o co-located artifacts – artifacts influence by surrounding  diff. reading depending on display setting  Critiques: historical revolutions – intellectual leaders displaced when o Highlighting – display attract attention to artifact followers rose up o Understating – display deflects attention from artifact o intellectuals, professionals & masses not Weberian parties  rather social aggregates, limited behavioral uniformity o Clustering/dispersing – manipulate space separating objects o Status consistency/inconsistency – objects convey status level, o instead: folk traditions & ethnic identity connection egalitarianism vs. elitism  folk songs continued languages, kept nationality spirits o Degree of conformity – extent household conforms w/ current  ex. Serbians under Ottomans, Turks antagonists interior decoration common-sense rules  folk poetry from masses same effects o Flavor – room’s taste/sense general, impression  folk tradition reveals ppl’s collective consciousness  conclusion: elites & masses not separate, part of complex/common cultural universe Part 3: Socialization 10 – Online Interactions Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Situated  present when social norms perceptions shared by group w/i Performances and Sexual Education same normative environment  study Internet’s role in MSM (men seeking men) sexual lives o alcohol ctrl mechanisms: subjective perceive ease – individual-level o how men learn participate/interact w/ online sex-seeking process risk drinking risk o also: male online interaction role w/ sexual edu.  collective level, decreased institutional rates in problematic  men restricted w/ online sexual search self-presentation students’ drinking report b/c stricter enforcement noted, but o rules govern man’s online sexual search “front” presentation inconsistent  men learned “legitimate performances” of self w/ appropriate  Solution 2 areas targeted  comprehensive address post-secondary online setting/purpose through online interactions drinking  possibly diff w/ one’s perceived self o 1. integrate plural institutional pathways (normative regulatory)  internet allow present numerous/diverse “selves”, o 2. specification of analytical levels (subjective, collective) appropriate w/ diff. settings  health lifestyles not random behaviors, deliberate individual choices  rules highlight certain physical characteristics’ dominance o instead: represent socially conditions patterns at junctions of  self “e-presentations” structure reflect gay communities’ sexual individuals’ life chances & choices desire discourse & website’s nature  life choices = process of agency, individual critically evaluate &  ex. age, race, physical attractiveness, masculine/feminine choose course of action  life changes = opportunities structures conferred to individuals o reflect Goffman’s “given” “given off” concepts:  potential partner active/passive constructions influence rules following their location in the social structure  own & other’s actions = signals, shape social interactions o Giddens: human activity 3 specific modalities:  ex. Younger presence w/i Mature chat-room  modalities = pathways higher education influence post- secondary drinking  Online interaction = sexual edu. conduit, esp. new comers o learn sexual health risk from websites & members  normative pathway - link w/ negotiate drinking-related o build/maintain “erotic capital”: sexually disadvantage men trade-off sanctio
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