SOC103H1 Chapter Notes -Meritocracy, Visible Minority, List Of Universities In Canada

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Published on 4 Feb 2013
Part 1: What is Sociology?
1 Intellectual Citizenship and Incarnation
Fisher: University/faculty advocate academic views only, retain integrity
o not personal, political, moral views, disengage from political debates
allow after hours, personal political engagements
can collective action vs. relevant educational issues
o obligation: present students syllabus material, analytical methods
liberal education value confined to academic values
no border moral, political sig. w/i larger society
o agree w/ Weber, maintain intellectual integrity
politicize university = academic mission disaster
o critique: not all politics same
1. fundamental human rights, constitutional form, law
2. partisan contention in parliamentary democracy
1st type relevant w/i university, 2nd type depends on 1st type
Noam Chomsky: writer’s intellectual responsibility = deliver truth
o give truth as best as one can, of things that matter, to right audience
writer responsibility as moral agent, truth matters of human
sign. to audience capable of acting on it
o Author: truth seeking = moral activity
irreducible part of intellectual citizenship
ex. Student investigation w/ Colombian Coke case dealings
ties university teachings w/ terrorism & murder
o incarnate connection btwn stable, peaceful, affluent sociological
inquiry & exploited terrorized impoverished circumstance studied
2 Anticipating Burawoy: John Porter’s Public Sociology
Burawoy: current sociology 4 faces
o Professional mainstream, quantitative, scientific, dominate, most
prestigious sociology; audience = scholarly community
o Policy applied professional sociology, commissioned by client
solve problem identified, directed by client (gov’t, corps)
o Critical direct scholar audience, reflexive
address fundamental value questions, often radical -ex. Marxism
o Public applied critical sociology, 2 types
Traditional Public Sociology newspaper opinion pieces
written by scholars, for mass, educated public
Organic public Sociology enter dialogic relations w/
disadvantaged/oppressed groups w/ goal = help solve problems
o 4 sociology types can/should combine under “public sociology”
umbrella, create “value science” discipline, solve world’s problems
public sociology core = professional, scientific sociology
value neutrality doctrine req. remove b/c sociology accountable
to society as a whole, not just scientific community
public sociology basis = social democratic values, objectively
good b/c serve humanities interests
ultimate goal = provide guaranteed universal human rights
globally; b/c existing neo-liberal based rights inadequate
John Porter’s Vertical Mosaic refuted Canada classes, equal opportunities
o later career: championed New Liberal “Public Sociology”
1. Reflexive and Morally Committed
rejected doctrine of value neutrality; sociologists assess &
criticize any social order serving particular interests
2. Based on Solid Science
A. methodological approach grand scale & synthetic
B. comparative & international scope, nations = basic
analysis unit w/ nation’s unique features considered
C. quantitatively sophisticated: set of empirical indicators
(variables) for social develop similar w/ economic models
(just reward system, open democratic political process)
3. Politically Engaged and Practical
use empirical progress measure for political purpose
views social dev. & moral progress related
o Porter’s work similar w/ Burawoy’s
3 Indigenous Spaces in Sociology
Can Sociology dev. w/o Western philosophy vantage point?
o Indigenous sociology only mean translated Western language terms?
theory generation = human; social context, social relative basis
o Western social theory privileged b/c widely dispersed
o social scientists observation w/i socially mediated framework of own
cultural meanings & symbols
scientists’ realities help dev. theory
o social theory critiques = intellectual colonialism
acknowledge different realities
o Theories: understand world, science theories generate knowledge
also determine knowledge legitimacy
indigenous knowledge i.e. alternative knowledge(s) exist
o indigenous knowledge ~ object, root w/ realities & contextual
is relationship w/ life & way of life
incl. traditional norms, values, mental constructs that guide,
organize, regulate ppl’s way making sense of their world
o diff. substantively from Western knowledge
o indigenous scholars: indigenous knowledge, not binary opp. western
fills ethical, knowledge gaps in Eurocentric edu., research
Canadian sociology: descriptive info. of indigenous ppl’s social issues
o Aboriginal Canadian contributions recognition marginal
o only statistical analysis of social indicators
ex. death, suicides, infant mortality rates
focuses deficits, problems not strengths, positive aspects
o sociology indigenization b/c globalization, incl. indigenous concepts
issue w/ communicability & universalism limits
4 Reading Reflexively
Sociological narratives quality recognition = major dev.
o narratives multiplicity: interest w/ narratives constructed, work,
become hegemonic, discredited
5 Francophone and Anglophone Sociologist in Canada
scientific growth adds antagonism btwn French & English Canadians
o science req. national institutions: universities, research centers
o but universal principle driven, transcend boundaries, politics
o scientific research progresses increasingly national & international
both forces separate French & English sociologists groups
Anglo & Franco sociologists both 3 frustration areas
o 1. congested job market, mostly English scholars b/c competition
2/3 Canadian English sociologists US educated
o 2. Americanized undergrad. courses & research publication protest
“extinction of Canadian university”, “connaissance d’ici”
o 3. Canadian sociology: historical, macrosociological, interdisciplinary
American: presents, quantitative, microsociological
Quebec & Canada: want establish nationalized societal science
Canadian university edu. boom 1960s
o French-Quebec, English-Canadian sociologist gain autonomy
Growing separation b/c nationalization of sociological field
o Result: faculty decrease foreign credentials, more Canadian materials
o Quebec-ization & Canadian-ization created 2 isolated linguistically
distinct scientific communities; new professors continue divide
French sociology professors regrouped, own disciplinary society
w/ own journals, research centers, conferences
o Quebec scholarship: strict unilingual principle
o English: kept official bilingual, de facto English dominated institution
o interprovincial collaboration, Quebec universities isolated
more likely collaboration w/ US, UK researcher than Quebec
Internationalization trends pressure
o effected Quebec: English main exchange & publication language
o Less Canadian/Quebec focused attention/publication, more US
o scholars choose btwn Quebec/Canada-ization vs. internationalization
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Part 15: Environment
59 A Canadian Catastrophe in Copenhagen
climate change’s environmental challenges, gov’t accountability problems
o globalization “governance w/o gov’t”, power shift
away nation-state’s, can’t hold TNCs accountable service citizen
interests w/i national borders
o strongest countries left “statist” period thinking, accountability gaps
climate governance: forms multistakeholder hybrid partnerships, market
private partnerships, elite governmental partnerships
o non-hierarchical modes, power diffused w/ multiple actors
actors comply w/ political order b/c perceive overall quality
social order’s institutions, norms legitimate
o legitimacy req. procedural logic (predictable rules by legit actors) &
consequential logic (rules led collective problem solving)
transnational governance absent citizen accountability
o scholars: various democratic innovation address “democratic deficit”
= enhance global governance legitimacy
input legitimacy focus: concern = participation in decision
making process
output legitimacy focus: concern = laws/rules quality
o increase accountability increase legitimacy
5 accountability dimensions: transparency, liability, ctrllability,
responsibility, responsiveness
o accountability models competing:
delegation models vs. participation models
both I-NGOs = deliberative & watchdog functions b/c more
single-minded, agile than states = media advantage
I-NGOs = accountability claim from below
o info. disclosure = tool strengthen accountability w/ transparency
moral & political imperative w/ environmental governance
problem: “governance by disclosure”, procedural emphasis
counterproductive, divert time/resource
ex. Copenhagen 2009 UN CC Conference “Governance-by-disclosure”
o major leaks b/c transparency demands
result: increase closed doors decision making, further objections
7000 civil society representatives to 1000, to 90 last day
o Canada performance obstructive, condemned by IGNOs
60 The Production of Modernity in Classic American Whale Hunting
61 Comparing News Media and the Internet as Sites for Environmental
Movement Activism for Jumbo Pass
Past: social movement req. mass media gain visibility, reach potential
supporters, engage opponents & gov’t w/ debate
o req. make issue news-worthy, asymmetrical dependency”
o study: eco-political w/ Jumbo Pass, proposed BC ski resort
analyze Internet function’s as open public sphere than
traditional mass media for environmentalist communication
Tourism, Development, Ecological Risk
o Media: discourse w/ appropriateness interaction w/ mountain
environment; mostly Jumbo Pass need protection from development
Environmentalist news sources viewed = authoritative knowers
environmentalists = representative for animals
skiing = ecologically illegitimate interaction mode
Pro-resort discourse: cite tourism, region’s economic dev.
views mountain = experience values, not resources
skiing = economically beneficial, not interaction mode
o Websites: mostly focus w/ protecting grizzly bears
additional environmental issues: climate change
cite nearby glacier predicted melt
provided alternative to proposed Jumbo Resort
cites local ski hills under capacity, Jumbo excessive
o Media: focused environmentalists protests tactics
blockades useful gain media access
frame project = controversial, little attention to substantive
environmental claims
o Websites: encouraged activism, mostly letter writing
gave instructions, sample letters, directions on talking points
use celebrity names encourage activism, not as news hooks
Local Democracy & Environmental Governance
o Media: examined non-state actors gain environmental governance
access, reconceptualise citizenship = participatory, ecological
focus: local decision making w/ environmental governance
provincial gov’t pass decision making power to local gov’t
gov’t reasoning = respect, empower local communities
environmental response = pass buck, locals ill-informed
o Websites: encouraged keep decision local w/ letter writing tactics
relationships btwn environmentalists & new media = authority &
represent non-human nature, asymmetrical dependence
o websites greater range of space for claims, nuanced claims
allows movements disseminate info.
o environmental produced webpages as communication medium
efficiency = uncertain
62 Regulating Agricultural Biotechnology in Canada: Paradoxes and
Conflicts of Closed System
fed. gov’t dual role w/ biotechnology: consumption regulator & promoter
economic growth
study: gaps w/ regulatory approval process b/c contradictory roles
o focus genetic engineering, substantial equivalence flawed concept
Health Canada & Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) responsible
regulating biotechnology
o CFI responsible assessing genetically engineered organisms’
environmental safety not Environment Canada
o regulatory agencies compelled establish solid working relations w/
regulated industries, ensure effective & enforceable regulation sys.
CFIA agricultural biotech regulation criticism: conflict of interest
o product regulated, not process; doesn’t consider secondary effects
transferring genes imprecise, random may cause physical
disruption in genome = biosafety risk
o substantial equivalence = safety assessment criterion
genetically engineered crop consider substantially equivalent if
there’s conventionally/organically grown counterpart
however, genetically modified more risks b/c foreign
concept created to ignore biochemical/toxicological tests
discourage, inhibit informative scientific research
o increase biotechnology, genetic engineering demands greater
technological application, “genetic treadmill”
biotechnology negative repercussion solution = new gen. of
technology that cause problem in first place
conclusion: regulatory system ignores broader social justice, politico-
economic, ethical concerns w/ biotechnology
o genetic engineering tech fail meet scientific expectations promoted
by industry developers & gov’t
63 The Science of Politics of Polar Ice
science = social practice, generates knowledge through practical activity
relation btwn science & politics:
o politics = historically variable ensemble of institutions & practices
o political = contestation of what constitutes politics
o science can legitimate repressive/anti-democratic politics
also introduce new understanding, sense of material world
Ice sheets = land-based, last ice age remnants
Sea ice = freeze periodically winter, melts summer, on ocean
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Sea ice melting nation states lay claim ocean floor b/c oil reserves
o UN Convention Law of the Sea: exclusive economic zone = 200nm off
nation’s coastline, exclusive access to resource under see floor
can extend if continental shelf past 200nm limit
o Russia, United States, Denmark, Norway, Canada border Arctic
all co-operatively pursue claims w/ UNCLOS, req. scientific basis
ex. Canada $40 million (2008 2013) invested map sea floor
Response sea ice melting, nation states modernist politics, asserting
sovereignty over territory w/ scientific practices
o largely ignore climate change implications, sea levels rising
ex. surface melt-water channel down through Greenland ice
sheets to bedrock, lubricates btwn ice sheet & bedrock, may
dislodge ice shelves & disintegrate
Part 2: Culture
6 Masculinity and Internet Pornography
connection btwn masculinity’s social construction & porn consumption
often presumed than examined
o mostly men’s porn use contribute to gender inequality
o little work w/ understand how porn representations involve w/
production of hegemonic masculinities
o modern pornography basis = men displayed women’s bodies
photography = key factor, strong desire for sex
technology not neutral medium for transmission of sex
it changes how & what we see; defined sexual difference
promised men power take ctrl of sex
Comments on Robert Jenson (radical feminist) porn critiques
o recognize Internet revolution porn delivery, didn’t consider
technology simply delivery means for existing produce
critique: whether internet change ways porn affect viewers
o technology is important b/c increase men’s ability ctrl porn
experiences, in turn ctrl women’s bodies
critique: porn also involve w/ technological confrontation btwn
men & nature, affects meaning of masculinity
Porn moved online: categorized, collapses differences
o min. complexities of desire, emotion, bodily response
o promise fulfill viewers’ desire see truth of sex, as it is ctrlled
o porn’s central concept = ctrl of women by men
porn creates fantasy, all women = lustful men’s ctrl less
about dominance than request women’s inherent aspect
mainstream porn stages confrontation btwn Man and nature
on-going desire establish ctrl over nature by bringing it to
order, central to masculine status
o paradox: internet porn promotes standardization, yet internet
fragments pornographic experience
o democratization of desires technology allow anyone participate,
opened more unconventional bodies & desires
yet amateur porn can’t break constraints of hegemonic
masculinity from w/i enframing
sex and boredom: porn representations reduce & narrows sexual desires
o eventually become boring
o internet porn, overcome problem w/ greater interactivity & diversity
but sameness quality, body parts endlessly repeated
o Heidegger, doesn’t advocate technology rejection
shouldn’t push boredom away, rather experience what it tell us
about the condition of our lives
7 Examining Cultural Change and Ideas about Gender Equality in
Relationship Self-Help Books
advice book message changing b/c cultural & structural changes
o effect heterosexual men & women intimate life views
o examine message change: illuminate gender relations, social
structures, ideologies
also reflect ongoing social change debates
o key N. A. individual guidance socio-economic structures now
church, families, intimate relationships, jobs, career
o self-help books new guidance alt. b/c accessibility & low cost
Opposing self-help book research views:
o literature champions conservation/regressive relationships
approaches vs. egalitarian relationships
Cluster 1 (1960s 1970s)
o emphasized partners seen equals, flexible roles
authors agree w/ women’s movements & increase women
financial independence w/ labor force involvement
o endorsed new relationships forms exploration
possible break from traditional dating/marriage models
o promoted couple ensure women’s sexual satisfaction
o stress openness & honesty commutation
o influence: gender relation change, alt. life style
feminist movement great momentum
Cluster 2 (1980s mid 1990s)
o emphasized relations w/ self, self-examination
be own princes, self-love instead of wait rescue/validate
o promoted women self-love above all relationships concerns
cautioned women emotional investment w/ relationships
promoted women equal treatment needs
o framed relationships challenges w/ dysfunctional vocab
less confidence w/ equal partnership reality
o influence: reactionary neo-liberalism in NA
fewer gender-sensitive policies, feminism less momentum
Cluster 3 (mid-1990s late 2000s)
o promote egalitarian relationship, emphasized distinctly feminine &
masculine personae needs
promote romance, chivalry, male leadership
o disagree w/ feminist movement, perceived family values erosions
o emphasize religion/spirituality importance w/ intimacy
o influence: neo-liberal, neo-conservative, post-feminist
religious culture, US: New Christian Right
8 The Bonds of Things
symbolic interactionism: study human-object interactions
o focus domestic artifacts, applicable w/ human environments
Domestic artifacts reveal self/social relationship stories
o Mapping info. interviews provide about the way objects plot their
social network, represent their cosmology & ideology
o Referencing comments about history, aesthetics, customary use of
Agency: distinguish btwn active/passive object use
o Intrinsically active objects intend physical manipulation
o Intrinsically passive objects intend contemplation
o Mode: subtle diff. active/passive use regardless original intentions
Active mode manipulated; Passive mode contemplated
Normal/Alien use standard/non-standard use
o Alien use b/c recycled object, refashioned w/ creative concern
Status objects yield owner’s rank info.
o Apparent cost all domestic object w/ political function
o more appropriate than actual cost
Esteem objects symbolize personal self-esteem individual achieved in
intimate life spheres: parenthood/marriage
Collective object represent ties w/ groups outside family
o national symbols, membership w/ voluntary associations
Stigma objects thing associated w/ spoiled identities, aging
Disidentifying objects make false claims, inflate status
Social facilitators turn ppl into temp. partners/opponents, public
demonstration skills & knowledge; ex. card games, puzzles
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