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SOC103H1 (103)

SOC103 Reading Sociology Section 6

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Lorne Tepperman

PART VI – EDUCATION Chapter 22 – The Rise of the “Research University”: Gendered Outcomes - The impact of university restructuring on the academic gender gap - The current focus on research, internationalism, and entrepreneurship perpetuates the gender gap - Gender gap refers to the fact that men occupy full-time tenured university jobs with higher ranks and salaries - University quality has been compared internationally o The Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings system is based largely on peer reviews, but also on citations and international staff/students o The Shanghai Jiao Tong Unniversity ranking system is based on research in science and engineering o Research assessment tends to influence what researchers study - The shift from teaching universities to research universities o Teaching universities still concentrate on undergraduate education and hire more women o Growing bureaucracy  Unreasonable research expectations  University downsizing creates obstacles for academics who lack job security or have few publications  Women academics have less job security than men  Women academics are less likely to publish peer-reviewed articles than men o Little family-friendly policies (for women) o Working long hours without getting ahead  More men remain fully employed until retirement o Many academics come from overseas  Men acknowledged their partner’s support in relocating  Women acknowledged the challenges of relocating alone - Conclusion o Fewer women wanted to compete in an individualistic environment o More men accepted the long-hours culture and values in an individualistic environment o Research universities tend to favour masculine behaviours that are competitive and confrontational o This suggests that the gender gap will persist even more as women rise through the ranks Chapter 23 – Education, Ethnonationalism, and Non-violence in Quebec - A country’s level of education is positively correlated to its level of ethnic violence, but education does not promote ethnic violence in wealthy countries o The Quebec separatist movement has been dominated by the educated elite  The educated are greatly overrepresented among PQ supporters  The educated have played the most influential role in the movement  The movement became a powerful force in Quebec only after the educational system expanded and produced an increasingly large number of educated people  Education and educational expansion are linked to the movement in different ways  Independence was in the interests of the educated  Anglophone males earned between 11-25% more than francophone males o Earning gap increases with level of education  Educated francophones experienced a greater gap in income than less-educated francophones, increased perception of inequality, and increased discrimination in the workplace o The factors that prevented the movement from turning violent  Quebec has a steady economic growth and high standard of living  Economic situation of francophones has improved relative to anglophones  Earning differentials disappeared  Economic returns of education are greater among francophones  Effective democratic government  Canada used very little coercion (e.g., physical violence) in dealing with the movement  Neither the Canadian nor the Quebec government formally discriminated (e.g., subordinate, outside the political community) against francophones  Political institutions provide a means for disgruntled actors to address their grievances  Allowing PQ to participate in the national parliament  Allowing francophones to control change through formal politics, not violence Chapter 24 – From International Universities to Diverse Local Communities? International Students in Halifax and Beyond - Highly skilled migrants are desirable based on the assumption that human capital assures successful post-migratory integration, while keeping the costs of integration low for the host state - Both national governments and non-governmental actors (translational corporations, localized businesses, universities) attract, select, and bear the costs for integrating skilled migrants - There is an increase in the number of international students in Halifax o Result of sustained investments from the pro
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