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SOC103 Reading Sociology Section 5

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Lorne Tepperman

PART V – FAMILIES Chapter 18 – The More Things Change… the More We Need Child Care: On the Fortieth Anniversary of the Report on the Royal Commission on the Status of Women - The creation of a national child care program is a step toward gender equality (for all women, not just the poor) o UNICEF ranked Canada at the very bottom of the 25 developed countries that were compared o While Canada as a whole falls short in the quality, access, financing, and policies of early childhood education, individual provinces have been attempting to improve access and quality at the provincial level  Quebec brought in a publicly funded ($7-a day child care) early childhood education program, full-day kindergarten, and low-fee after-school day care spaces for all families with school-aged children o High-quality, affordable child care remains out of reach for many Canadians - Four principles of the Royal Commission o Women should be free to choose whether or not to take employment outside their homes o Child care is a responsibility shared by the mother, the father, and society o Society has a responsibility for women because of pregnancy and child birth, and special treatment related to maternity will always be necessary o In certain areas, women will for an interim time require special treatment to overcome adverse effects of discriminatory practices - Albanese’s position o Rapid social and economic changes means that more women with young children have to enter the labour force, while nothing about child care has been done to facilitate the changes o Many of the recommendations by the Royal commission have never been put into action  Women are not free to choose whether or not to take employment outside their homes  Women are not given special treatment  Children and child care are treated as private matters and individual lifestyle choices  Children are not socially valued  Mothers bear the weight of social reproduction Chapter 19 – Keeping the Family Intact: The Lived Experience of Sheltered Homeless Families - The experience of homeless families living in the shelter (EFS) by collecting ethnography data relying on participant observation and in-depth interviews with shelter guests, staff, and board members - The social organization of the shelter (policies, rules, practices) in helping the lived experience of homeless families - The families are unable to maintain housing because of high rents and shortage of affordable housing o Most did not go to the shelter directly after losing their home (e.g., utilized other resources) o Most turned to the shelter for accommodation as a last resort - There are negative aspects of shelter life (e.g., no privacy, struggle with interpersonal relationships and family dynamics) o Most people are thankful for having their partner’s support - Shelters may serve to keep families together that otherwise might have separated, and it may cause tensions that break apart families that otherwise might have stayed together Chapter 20 – Love and Arranged Marriage in India Today: Negotiating Adulthood - Indian society has maintained the tradition of arranged marriages - Two opposing hypotheses o Modernization theory predicts the collapse of the arranged system and its replacement with Western-style individual choice (e.g., individualism, romantic love) o Neo-traditionalism predicts that Indian youth will see individualism as destructive of Indian family and religion, and thus strengthen the arranged marriage system - Research is based on open-ended interviews o Arrangements have evolved into a system of introductions  First, parents pre-approve potential partners  Parental criteria is based on education, income (of the man), religion, caste, and reputation  Parents reserve the right to terminate any relationship of which they disapprove  Then, parents formally introduce the young people  The potential bride or groom can veto someone at the start or can hold several subsequent private sessions, which are more like interviews than dates  The pair are expected to announce their engagement after six weeks  During the engagement period, the couple is allowed to go out together frequently but is expected to refrain from sexual activity o There is a competing underground system of romantic relationships (e.g., meet at college or work)  Mostly not acceptable in Indian culture (e.g., incompatibility of the partner’s family, boy was too young and without a stable job, reasons internal to the couple)  Although a self-chosen marriage provide more equality and intimacy, parental introduction guaranteed similarity of backgrounds and ongoing parental support o The predictions of modernization have been realized  Parents still play a decisive role, but they put more emphasis on achieved characteristics  Arranged marriage has evolved to allow more input from youth  There exists a parallel system of dating o The predictions of neo-traditionalism are present to a lesser extent  Horoscopes, premarital virginity, and the requirement of parental support remain important o Most young people are living within the intersections of the familial and the individualistic systems  Self-arranged marriage is when a young person accepts the rules and values of an arrangement, but manages to control the procedure  Love-cum-arranged marriage is widely considered  It includes the emotional high of falling
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