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Chapter 12

Chapter 12.summery &practice questions with answers & page number!

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University of Toronto St. George

CHAPTER 12 SCHOOLS AND FORMAL EDUCATION Chapter Summary The chances are that if you have purchased this book, you are enrolled in a post-secondary educational institution. Another assumption: you have made the commitment to post-secondary education out of the belief that this investment will result in a well-paying, fulfilling job. Sociologists note that while education does provide the opportunity for occupational advancement, it also perpetuates social inequality. That is, schoolchildren learn not only basic literacy and numeracy skills, they also learn their ‘proper’ place in society; thus, social inequality is reproduced across generations. It is also pointed out that upper-class children have more advantages than their working-class counterparts, both in terms of attending a private school and attaining a higher education. Even when students are grouped together in the same classroom they do not receive the same education, as a result of tracking, or the differential assigning of children to educational programmes, on the basis of perceived ability. While public schools socially integrate diverse groups of children, some children attend unconventional schools where the school population is quite homogeneous; e.g., private schools, and schools that segregate students on the basis of race, sex, and religion. The benefits and drawbacks of segregated schools are discussed. Finally, the chapter notes the stresses schoolchildren often experience: the pressure to have good grades and be popular with peers (these demands appear to be antithetical to each other). And, of course, some children face violence at the hands of their schoolmates. The attributes of childhood bullies and their victims are thoroughly examined. Learning Objectives In this chapter, you will • learn about the role schools play in communities; • come to understand the social functions of higher education; • identify the various inequalities perpetuated by educational institutions; • analyze how abuse or violence may take place on school grounds; and, • appreciate the ability of education to foster a wholesome society. Key Terms 2 education: A process designed to develop one’s general capacity for thinking critically, as well as a capacity for self-understanding and self-reliance. formal education: Education received in accredited schools during formal teaching sessions. hidden curriculum: Lessons that are not normally considered part of the academic curriculum that schools unintentionally or secondarily provide for students. informal education: The variety of ways we undertake to gain knowledge for ourselves outside institutions of formal education (e.g., schools, colleges, and universities). meritocracy: Any system of rule or advancement where the rewards are strictly proportioned to the accomplishment and all people have the same opportunity to win these rewards. training: A process designed to identify and practise specific routines that achieve desired results. Recommended Readings Coleman, J. S., with J. W. C. Johnstone, & K. Jonassohn (1966 [1961]). The Adolescent Society: The Social Life of the Teenager and Its Impact on Education. New York: Free Press. As we saw earlier, this is a classic study in the sociology of education, the findings of which are still applicable in today’s society. Coleman examines the distinct value system of adolescents and its implications for their academic achievement. Guppy, N., & Davies, S. (2006). The Schooled Society: An Introduction to the Sociology of Education. Toronto: Oxford University Press. This book explores schooling from various perspectives, within a Canadian context. It discusses both classic and contemporary theories and theorists and links their research to educational inequality, the social organization of schooling, and the future of schooling in Canada. Kadison, R., & DiGeronimo, T. F. (2004). College of the Overwhelmed: The Campus Mental Health Crisis and What To Do About It. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. In this book, the authors focus on the recent increase in serious mental health problems among students on campus. They examine rising incidents of depression and harmful behaviours such as binge drinking. The authors outline the school-related pressures faced by students that have an impact on their well-being and provide helpful information both for students and their parents to reduce the severity of stress-related problems. 3 Lauder, H., Brown, P., Dillabough, J-A, & Halsey, A. H. (eds.) (2006). Education, Globalization, and Social Change. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. This book outlines the relationship between education and the outcomes it is generally believed to have: economic success, the reduction of poverty, inequality, and environmental harm. However, the authors state that there are limits to education’s ability to do all the above. The authors examine these limits, as well as opportunities for success, through various readings. Livingstone, D. W. (2004). The Education-Jobs Gap: Underemployment or Economic Democracy. Toronto: Garamond. As the title suggests, this book, by an eminent Canadian sociologist, discuses the gap people experience between the education they receive and the skills and knowledge necessary in their occupation. The findings of this book are important for current students who are interested about what work life will be like in the future. Seeley, J. R., Sim, R. A., Loosley, E. W., with N. W. Bell, & D. F. Fleming (1956). Crestwood Heights. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. This is a classic product of Canadian-based sociological research. An ethnographic study of an affluent Canadian suburb (Forest Hill Village in Toronto), it explores how the community school plays an important part in the lives of students, parents, and teachers, and how it impacts children’s values, ambitions, and mental well-being. Websites Recommended Websites Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) www.oecd.org Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) www.eric.ed.gov Canadian Teachers’ Federation (CTF) www.ctf-fce.ca Canadian Council on Learning (CCL) www.ccl-cca.ca/ccl StudyCanada www.studycanada.ca 4 Bullying.org www.bullying.org Toronto Star Series: Brainstorm www.thestar.com/topic/AtkinsonSeries-Atkinson2009 Multiple Choice Questions 1. The rising need for ever more sophisticated educational qualifications is known as a) diploma disease. b) formal education. c) credentialism. d) postmodern educational requirements. 2. __________ is a process designed to develop one’s general capacity for thinking critically, as well as a capacity for self-understanding and self-reliance. a) Formal education b) Schooling c) Training d) Education 3. Education received in accredited schools during formal teaching sessions is known as a) manifest functions. b) training. c) formal education. d) ability grouping. 4. __________ refers to the process designed to identify and practise specific routines that achieve desired results. a) Training b) Tracking c) Education d) Ability grouping 5 5. Lessons that are not normally considered part of the academic curriculum that schools unintentionally or secondarily provide for students are known as a) latent functions. b) the hidden curriculum. c) secondary socialization. d) accidental learning. 6. Which of the following is an example of a latent function of schools? a) the teaching of the importance of punctuality b) the teaching of knowledge and skills c) the warehousing of unemployed young people d) all of the above 7. Which of the following statements would be most closely associated with the symbolic interactionist perspective? a) Schools teach students how to dress and behave to befit their social roles. b) Schools train students in patient obedience—a necessary qualification for the workplace. c) The job of schools is to give students human capital and skills. d) none of the above 8. According to Christopher Jencks and David Riesman, the rise of the research-oriented university has resulted in greater power for a) university administrators. b) federal and provincial governments. c) professors. d) all of the above 9. A __________ refers to any system of rule or advancement in which the reward
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