Chapter 11 Families and Socialization.docx

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Chapter 11 Families and Socialization
Functionalism
central institution in society where family members come together as a unified whole
Changes in family reflect changes in society
Talcott Parsons view division of family labor as key to success (ex. dad being breadwinner +
leader)
argue that co-habituation is inferior to traditional marriage, less permanent and fails to provide
economic and psychological benefits
Tradition forms contribute to survival of society and members
Families important for reproduction, provides physical and psychological support, socialization
of children
Critical Theory
does not look for universal truth, does not believe certain forms of family fulfill social functions
better
Industrialization, families moved from self-sustaining to consumption units
Men sells labor for income, women delegated with household responsibilities
Gender inequality increased with gender differentiation, which increased with capitalism
Symbolic Interactionism
Social interactionists believes that conservative right wing politicians preach traditional family
values that marginalizes groups like single mothers, LGSBT, and divorcees
Purpose is to channel hostility away from exploitive employers and governments
Channel money to policing and imprisonment instead of social benefits
Socialization
Functionalists believes socialization occurs top down
Children internalize social norms and conform to roles and expectations of society
Parsons argues it’s important for society as it creates social conformity and consensus
Adorno argues that top down socialization creates anger, superstition, prejudice, racism,
homophobia. Less integration/socialization means less of these by-products
Symbolic interactionists Cooley and Mead believes in bottom up socialization (peer) where
children learn from each other
Cooley’s looking glass self where children view themselves through how others see them
Mead believes I and Me. I wants to do creative impulsive things that the Me stops because of
social stigma
Generalized other is the understanding of attitudes and expectations of society
William Goode looks at changes of family structure around the word, pattern between family
and industrialization
Nuclear family: parents, kids, less than 3 types of relationships
Global trend towards nuclear family, but does not do so uniformly worldwide, smaller units
Extended family: multiple generations, more than 3 types of relationships
Goode believed functionalists’ idea that some patterns in families are inevitable
Modified extended family: immigrants who have formed nuclear families but still live in
proximity of relatives
Census family: household with two spouses with or without children
Families shared features:
o Dependency and intimacy
o Sexuality
o Protection
o Power
o violence
primary socialization: infancy to adolescent learning, crucial to personality
secondary socialization: lifelong social learning to become capable member of society, through
interactions and response to social pressures
anticipatory socialization: learning about and preparing for future roles, ex. Med school student
resocialization: rapid learning used to reprogram people
Adorno did study that shows racism and other prejudices comes from socialization by
authoritative parents
Gender socialization: parents teach their kids to adapt a gender role, sometimes unconsciously
Racial socialization: parents shape children’s learning based on race and race relations
Class socialization: parents communicate life experiences and feelings about societal class,
children learn about social hierarchy
Veblen remarks that richest and poorest class is similar, neither was part of the contest for
success. Rich stays rich, poor stays poor
Arlie Hochschild argues that emotions are social, society teaches us what we can and should
feel, ex. Happy at party, sad at funeral
Emotional labor: work that requires the person to have the ‘right emotion’ and instill it in
others, ex. Flight attendant instilling calm
Cohesive and adaptive families do best
Parenting
Best form is authoritative: loving but firm
Reasoning is best, threats and violence might yield undesired results
Bad parenting: power assertion, love withdrawal, order without explanation
Good parenting: teaching by example/reason, using mistakes as opportunity for learning
4 forms: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful
Good parenting teaches interdependence, sociability, civility