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Chapter 3

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University of Toronto St. George

STARTING POINTS LORNE TEPPERMANCHAPTER 3 SOCIAL STRUCTURESSocial script guidelines that people follow to carry out interactions and fulfil role expectations as seamlessly as possible ex how to act in front of a police officerRole the expected behaviour of an individual in a social position and the duties associated with that positionIdentity all the ways in which we view and describe ourselves femalemale friend student attractive unusual etc and in which others perceive us Lookingglass self a process in which people come to see and value themselves as others see them Charles Horton CooleyRoleset the collection of roles any individual plays Roletaking a process in which we take on existing defined roles Symbol a thing that stands for or represents something else and provides a means of communication ex Through spoken words written words facial expressions or body languageRolemaking the process or creating new social roles in any through interaction Status a persons social position which is associated with a role and its associated scripts Status sequence the array of statuses we occupy over a lifetime through which we pass in a socially recognizable order Role strain a result of role conflict when the demands of some roles conflict with the demands of others CHAPTER OUTLINE human factors that influence our social relations social scripts and social formssocial scripts are culturally constructedcertain scripted deviations are allowed ex women are allowed to do something that men are notsocial forms may be defined as social objects symbols roles relationshipspeople may not be aware of social forms but they appear everywhere and influence out behaviour nevertheless Georg Simmelthis chapter focuses on symbolic interactionist point of viewalthough our roles and identities play an important part in shaping out behaviour the groups we belong to also have a larger influence once labelled deviant by others or themselves people tend to set themselves apart and develop their own language and patterns of behaviour this formation of outsider community is especially evident among jazz musiciansbeing labelled as deviant thus part of being a deviant requires interaction with an outsider group and the rejection of views held by the larger society social rules make deviance Beckers Outsiders study of deviance must pay as much attention to rule enforcers as it does to rule violatorswe can never simply assume fault on the part of the deviant or attribute the deviance to a dysfunction or mental illness labelling theory social groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction constitutes deviance and by applying these rules to particular people and labelling them as outsiders deviance as a result of group expelling an individual or subgroup
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