Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSG (10,000)
SOC (1,000)
SOC103H1 (100)
Chapter 12

SOC103H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Andrew Hacker, Grade Inflation, Railways Act 1921

Course Code
Lorne Tepperman

of 5
Credentialism - the rising need for more sophisticated educational qualifications
primary socialization, i.e. teamwork, tolerance, leadership
Basis for a responsible citizenry
Increase people's ability to understand current events and public debates, to form sound
People who have more get more, better education starting points for their children.
Capable people may not do well on tests
Perpetuate social inequality
Socio-economic inequality
Values and aspirations
Importance of
Ways of looking at Education
Functional Theory
Secondary level: give all students basic skills in literacy and numeracy and some students
specific job skills
occupational training valuble member of workforce
liberal arts training informed citizens
Human capital functions
Manifest functions
Critical Theory
Hidden curriculum, teaches students their "proper" place in society according to their
gender and social class
Train students in patient obedience
Hold students responsible for success and failure - capitalist society
Latent functions
Symbolic Interaction
Teaches how to dress and behave
Socialization begins at school
New social role of higher education institutions: knowledge production
Chapter 12 Schools and Formal Education
Thursday, March 13, 2014
1:16 PM
SOC103 Page 1
The Academic Revolution (1968) - Christopher Jencks, David Riesman
Universities increase research funding, decrease undergraduate teaching, raise international
Professor promoting meritocracy, favouring a national/international oriented admission -
admission based on ability, not local residence
Youth adult authority
Locals foreign stuents
Religious secular education
Social elite lower classes
Without equality, efforts to expand opportunity are useless
In Canada, nearly half of a university's operating costs are paid by student tuitions
Andrew Hacker: criticizes 1. the backbreaking tuition fees at top universities, 2. the injustice
of the labour system
Tedious read that provided no new insights
Failed to offer more than half--hearted suggestions for reform
Others felt personally attacked
Genuinely revealing and persuasive, has stood the test of time
Other opinions:
Difference between Canada and U.S.
Canada has a much smaller system
Much smaller range of inequality in Canadian universities
Educational Inequalities
Significant rise in women's educational attainment
e.g. in 2003, 60% of graduates in universities were women
Schools: levelling the playing field for minorities
Failure in educational system
Reluctance of women to enter and compete in higher-paid male venues
Gender differences in salary and rank reflect:
Different structures of opportunities w/ respect to gender
Self-selection. e.g. women give primacy to families
Gender inequalities in the labour market
Racial and Ethnic groups
Has seen increases in educational attainment, due to highly educated immigrants, not minority
Unacceptability of foreign credentials
Factors discourages foreign graduates
SOC103 Page 2
Unacceptability of foreign credentials
Often-unnecessary requirement of Canadian working experience
Investment in higher education is the best long-term investment a non-wealthy person can make
Aboriginal Groups
Disadvantage resulting from the harmful legacy of residential schooling and discriminatory
educational policies
1 in 3 aboriginals did not complete high school; 1 in 8 for non-aboriginals.
8% aboriginals has university degree, 23% for non-aboriginals.
In 2006,
Poorer Socio-economic Backgrounds
Less likely to gain a higher education
Characterized by people of similar socio-economic status poors stay poor
Government cutting back funding parents cannot afford
Aged 18 - 24, 60% from 年收入少于 $25,000的家庭 gain post-secondary education80% from
年收入多于 $100,000的家庭
The Adolescent Society (1966) - James S. Coleman
Adolescent subculture: looking good means everything, academic achievement means nothing
Deviates from adult world
Some think this subculture does not deviate from, but reflect, larger social values
e.g. universities have more athletic scholarships
Clique formation
Inherently conflictual
Ability Grouping or Streaming
Ensures the best students receive the most challenging education
Based on academic ability, yes or no?
e.g. read faster or slower
Ability Grouping
By subject, cover faster or slower
Students move as a block
Allow students to advance according to their abilities
Adapts different instructional needs
Reduces failure
Helps to preserve interests
Less likely to confront students with their inadequacy in comparison to classmates
who are much more able
Slower students need other to stimulate
Discourage students in low categories
Reproduces existing social inequalities
Tracking / Streaming
SOC103 Page 3