Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSG (10,000)
SOC (1,000)
SOC103H1 (100)
Chapter 12

SOC103H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Andrew Hacker, Grade Inflation, Railways Act 1921


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC103H1
Professor
Lorne Tepperman
Chapter
12

Page:
of 5
Credentialism - the rising need for more sophisticated educational qualifications
primary socialization, i.e. teamwork, tolerance, leadership
-
Basis for a responsible citizenry
-
Increase people's ability to understand current events and public debates, to form sound
opinions
-
Education
People who have more get more, better education starting points for their children.
Capable people may not do well on tests
Perpetuate social inequality
-
Socio-economic inequality
Values and aspirations
Importance of
-
Ways of looking at Education
Functional Theory
Secondary level: give all students basic skills in literacy and numeracy and some students
specific job skills
occupational training valuble member of workforce
liberal arts training informed citizens
Post-secondary:
Human capital functions
Manifest functions
-
Critical Theory
Hidden curriculum, teaches students their "proper" place in society according to their
gender and social class
Train students in patient obedience
Hold students responsible for success and failure - capitalist society
Latent functions
-
Symbolic Interaction
Teaches how to dress and behave
-
Socialization begins at school
-
New social role of higher education institutions: knowledge production
-
Chapter 12 Schools and Formal Education
Thursday, March 13, 2014
1:16 PM
SOC103 Page 1
The Academic Revolution (1968) - Christopher Jencks, David Riesman
Universities increase research funding, decrease undergraduate teaching, raise international
profile
-
Professor promoting meritocracy, favouring a national/international oriented admission -
admission based on ability, not local residence
-
Youth adult authority
Locals foreign stuents
Religious secular education
Social elite lower classes
Resistance
-
Without equality, efforts to expand opportunity are useless
-
In Canada, nearly half of a university's operating costs are paid by student tuitions
-
Andrew Hacker: criticizes 1. the backbreaking tuition fees at top universities, 2. the injustice
of the labour system
Tedious read that provided no new insights
Failed to offer more than half--hearted suggestions for reform
Others felt personally attacked
Genuinely revealing and persuasive, has stood the test of time
Other opinions:
Difference between Canada and U.S.
Canada has a much smaller system
-
Much smaller range of inequality in Canadian universities
-
Educational Inequalities
Significant rise in women's educational attainment
e.g. in 2003, 60% of graduates in universities were women
Schools: levelling the playing field for minorities
-
Gender
Failure in educational system
Reluctance of women to enter and compete in higher-paid male venues
Gender differences in salary and rank reflect:
-
Different structures of opportunities w/ respect to gender
Self-selection. e.g. women give primacy to families
Gender inequalities in the labour market
-
Racial and Ethnic groups
Has seen increases in educational attainment, due to highly educated immigrants, not minority
advancing
-
Unacceptability of foreign credentials
Factors discourages foreign graduates
-
SOC103 Page 2
Unacceptability of foreign credentials
Often-unnecessary requirement of Canadian working experience
Investment in higher education is the best long-term investment a non-wealthy person can make
-
Aboriginal Groups
Disadvantage resulting from the harmful legacy of residential schooling and discriminatory
educational policies
-
1 in 3 aboriginals did not complete high school; 1 in 8 for non-aboriginals.
8% aboriginals has university degree, 23% for non-aboriginals.
In 2006,
-
Poorer Socio-economic Backgrounds
Less likely to gain a higher education
-
Characterized by people of similar socio-economic status poors stay poor
-
Government cutting back funding parents cannot afford
-
Aged 18 - 24, 60% from 年收入少于 $25,000的家庭 gain post-secondary education80% from
年收入多于 $100,000的家庭
-
The Adolescent Society (1966) - James S. Coleman
Adolescent subculture: looking good means everything, academic achievement means nothing
-
Deviates from adult world
-
Some think this subculture does not deviate from, but reflect, larger social values
-
e.g. universities have more athletic scholarships
-
Clique formation
Inherently conflictual
-
Ability Grouping or Streaming
Ensures the best students receive the most challenging education
-
Based on academic ability, yes or no?
-
e.g. read faster or slower
Ability Grouping
By subject, cover faster or slower
Setting
Students move as a block
Allow students to advance according to their abilities
Adapts different instructional needs
Reduces failure
Helps to preserve interests
Less likely to confront students with their inadequacy in comparison to classmates
who are much more able
Advantages:
Slower students need other to stimulate
Discourage students in low categories
Reproduces existing social inequalities
Objections:
Tracking / Streaming
SOC103 Page 3