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CH 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 textbook notes

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Margaret Gassanov

CHAPTER 8 – EXPERIMENTS Classical Experiments  1. HISTORY – during experiment historical events may occur,  3 major components confound experimental results o Independent and Dependent Variable  ex. Police beating Aboriginal chief during experiment  IV = dichotomous variable (present or not)  2. MATURATION – subjects age during experiment  use to contract between results in dependent variable  Participants grow tired, sleepy, bored, hungry, etc.  Variables must be operationally defined  3. TESTING – Subject more sensitive to issues o Pretesting and Posttesting  give more thoughtful/socially desirable answers  PRETEST – measure dependent variable in subjects before  4. INSTRUMENTATION – Different measures in pre/posttest stimulus (IV) exposure  5. STATISTICAL REGRESSION – Interview an extreme sample  POSTTEST – remeasure dependent variable in subjects after  ex. low score, can only get better or stay the same, can’t stimulus (IV) exposure get worse o Experimental and Control groups  6. SELECTION BIASES – Wrongfully assumed preventative groups  EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS – group of subjects administered  7. EXPERIMENTAL MORALITY – a sample dies experimental stimulus  8. CAUSAL TIME ORDER – ambiguity about causality of IV and DV  CONTROL GROUP – resemble experimental group closely except  9. DIFFUSION OR IMITATION OF TREATMENTS – subjects not administered stimulus communicates  used to detect stimulus effects  Pass ideas/information, affect the experiment  HAWTHORNE EFFECT – any impact of research on the subject of  10. COMPREHENSION – give something extra to one group study  ex. more attentive to experiment group vs. control group  i.e. unintended effects  11. COMPENSATORY RIVALRY – groups know there’s different  Double Blind Experiment – neither the subjects nor the experiments know  work harder to compete w/ other group which is control group vs. experiment group  12. DEMORALIZATION – one group feels deprived  ex. educational experiments, demoralized group rebel Selecting Subjects o Sources of External Validity  PROBABILITY SAMPLING – select 2 probability samples represent of total  EXTERNAL VALIDITY – possibility conclusions drawn from pop. experiment can’t be generalizable to the “real” world o do so using a sampling frame  SOLOMON’S FOUR-GROUP DESIGN o 2 groups must resemble each other  Group 1: Pretest  stimulus  Posttest  result 1 o seldom used  Group 2: Pretest   Posttest  result 2  RANDOMIZATION – Randomly assign experimental subjects to  Group 3:  stimulus  Posttest  result 3 experimental/control groups  Group 4:   Posttest  result 3  Matching  Expected Results o Subjects matched based on similarities in 1+ variables  1. a change should be observed in result 1 o 1 of pair in experimental group, other in control  2. no change should be observed in result 2  3. result 1 and result 2 should be different (1 effected) Variable on Experimental Design  4. result 3 should be different than result 4 (1 effected)  Pre-Experimental Research Designs (Avoid the following) o ONE-SHOT CASE STUDY – no pretest, IV not measured Other Experiments  ex. Survey people that watched the Aboriginal History movie  NATURAL EXPERIMENTS – Occur in the course of social events in the real answer questionnaire on prejudice level o ONE GROUP PRETEST-POSTTEST DESIGN – has pretest but lacks world o outside controlled settings control group  WEB-BASED EXPERIMENTS – use web as a place to conduct social science  can’t determine effects of IV o STATIC GROUP COMPARISON –no pretest  ex. Survey 2 groups, 1 watched Aboriginal movie, other didn’t Strength and Weakness  Pros:  separate groups may have diff initial prejudice levels o Scientific Rigor  Validity Issues in Experimental Research o Isolation of IV and its effects on DV o Sources of Internal Validity: 12 sources  INTERNAL VALIDITY – possibility conclusions drawn from o ease of replication  Cons experimental results may not accurately reflect what went on in o ARTIFICIALITY – What happens in experiment context may not reflect the experiment itself what happens in the real world  internal validity threatened whenever anything other than the experimental stimulus can affect the dependent variable CHAPTER 9 – SURVEY RESEARCH Topics Appropriate to Survey Research  use hypothetical situations  Survey  descriptive, explanatory, exploratory purposes o best for collecting original data on pop. too large observe directly Questionnaire Construction  need probability sampling  results reflect larger population  General Questionnaire format  ex. measure large population attitudes and orientations o poorly laid out questionnaire  missed questions, confusion of  Uses questions as means of operationalizing concepts desire data’s nature, unanswered questions o good question quality = essential o Should be spread out, uncluttered  Unit of Analysis = individual people o Shouldn’t squeeze several questions into a line, abbreviate, or use o extendable to groups or interactions few pages as possible  Respondent – Person who provides data for analysis by responding to a  demoralized after finished first page when there’s more o Respondent shouldn’t be forced to reread b/c confusion survey questionnaire  Some surveys false pretense –ex. telemarketers o Respondent shouldn’t be forced write in cramped spaces  Formats for Respondents Guidelines for Asking Questions o Make genuine boxes, professional look o Print coded number, circle appropriate number, avoid boxes  Variables operationalized as questions  to gather data o can ask directly or written down and given to respondent  easier to identify code for surveyor and participant  Questionnaires – instrument containing questions & other items  CONTINGENCY QUESTIONS – a question intended for some respondents o used in surveys, to solicit needed information o Contingency questions isolated from other questions off to side or enclosed in box  Choose appropriate Question Forms o Questions and Statements  instructions on top of each page for contingency questions  many questions in questionnaires also statements = intended o ex. if Question A == True: Do Question B; else Skip Question B  can show range of statements ask respondent Likert items  Question B == contingency question o Open-ended questions – respondent give own answer  MATRIX QUESTIONS – series of questions using same answer categories  most use in qualitative in-depth interview o ex. rows of Likert Items with the same scale  answers must be coded o Pros: o Close-ended questions – respondent select an answer  efficient space use  most popular survey research method b/c:  respondents answer faster  increase comparability of responses  response uniformity, easier processing  may over look important responses o Cons:  close-ended questions guided by 2 requirements:  req. structure item to fit into matrix format  1. responses exhaustive (cover all possible response)  foster a “response-set” i.e. answering all “Yes”  avoid by alternating statements representing different  2. responses mutually exclusive (no overlap) o 1. Make Items Clear & Unambiguous orientations and make statements short & clear  Precise so respondent knows exactly what’s asked  Ordering Items in a Questionnaire o 2. Avoid Double-Barreled Questions o Appearance of one question may influence answer to later questions  DOUBLE-BARRELED QUESTIONS – a question w/ multiple parts  ex. Start w/ questions relating to crime, then an open-ended question on severe social problem likely mention crime  ex. Agree/Disagree but another answer is viable  General rule: “and” in question = double-barreled question o Less educated respondents more influenced by ordering o 3. Respondents Must be Competent to Answer o Avoid by randomizing order of items  continuously question whether respondent able to provide  problem: respondents see questions as chaotic & worthless  need respondents switch attention btwn topics information’s reliably o 4. Respondents Must be Willing to Answer o Can anticipate item’s effects, interpret results meaningfully  ex. undecided response b/c opinion in minority o Self-administered survey:  guarantee anonymity to avoid overwhelming undecided  no negative/threatening starting questions  Demographic data request placed at end o 5. Questions should be Relevant to most respondents  asked irrelevant question higher chance skewed results o Interviews: demographic questions first  include “Not Sure”, “No Opinion” option  Questionnaire Instructions o 6. Short Items are Best  unambiguous & precise o Short introduction, orient respondents  respondents unwilling to study item to answer it  especially needed if questionnaire incl. a variety of questions o Have basic instructions for completing survey  should req. quick read, understand intent, select/provide answer w/o difficulty  have instructions on expected answers –ex. in box X want T/F o 7. Avoid Negative Items to avoid easy misinterpretation o Open-ended questions give guidelines on answer length  avoid words such as “not”, “prohibited” o limit rank-ordering questions b/c need reread  Pretesting the Questionnaire o 8. Avoid Biased Items and Terms  no ultimate true meaning for any concepts studied o pretest w/ diverse set of 10 people  wording effects the responses to the question  participants don’t need to be a representative sample  Bias – the quality a measurement device misrepresents what is  ask for completion, not error checking actually being measured in a particular direction o Precoding instructions for data processing  Biased question = leading, loaded  ex. identification of attitude/position w/ a prestigious Self-Administered Questionnaires person/entity can cause bias response  1 of 3 methods of administering a survey  Aware of social desirability of questions/answers o respondents asked to complete questions by themselves o most common method is mail survey  people answer question through filter of what will make them look good, especially for interviews  may mailed to house, researcher pick up or vice versa  to avoid:  Usually Questionnaire accompanied w/ Letter of Explanation, a Self-  imagine the feeling of giving each question/answers  if Addressed stamped envelope for return  Should track rates of return embarrassed, reword the answer/question o graph 1: number returned per day Telephone Surveys o graph 2: cumulative percentage of returned  1 of 3 methods of administering a survey  returned questionnaires should be scanned, assigned ID number o 3. surveys conducted by telephone  Follow up mails encourage participation, increase return rate  Years ago social-class bias b/c excluded poor from surveys o 1 original questionnaire mail w/ 2 follow ups 2 – 3 weeks apart  Sampling problem w/ unlisted numbers  RESPONSE RATE (%) – number of people participating in a survey divided o Survey sample = telephone directory, omits rich by/ own request by the number selected in the sample  Pros: o aka. completion rate or self-administered survey return rate o Time and money advantages o Higher response rate = less chance for response bias o Sometimes respondents more honest giving socially disapproving  b/c non-respondents may differ w/ respondents other than just answers if not looked directly in the eye willingness to participate  Con: o 50% = adequate, 60% = good, 70% = very good o Misleading sale campaign now encouraged most to hang up o Demonstrated lack of response bias more important that high  CATI – Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing response rate o Automated and random dialing o Computer displays to questions and accepts answers Interview Surveys  1 of 3 methods of administering a survey Technologies and Survey Research o survey administered by interviews in face-to-face encounters  CAPI – Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing  INTERVIEW – data collection encounter w/ one person (interviewer) asks o Similar to CATI but face to face questions of another (respondent)  CASI – Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing o by face to face or by telephone o researcher bring computer to respondent’s home o Most interview surveys require more than one interviewer  CASQ – Computerized Self-Administrated Questionnaire  Higher response rate than mail surveys (80-85%) o completely electronic, answer questionnaire = data o interviewer presence generally decreases “I don’t knows”, “no  TDE – Touchtone Data Entry answers” b/c interviewers can probe for answers o Respondent calls research organization, answer computerized  PROBE – solicit a more complete answer to a question questions w/ telephone key presses  Probe must be neutral, can’t affect response’s nature  VR – Voice Recognition, similar to TDE but accepts spoken words  ex. “anything more?” o Interviewer can also clarify confusing answers Online Surveys  Interviewer can observe respondents while asking questions  Web surveys may not be representative of general population o ethical issue: respondent not being aware that such information o depends on goal of study, the sample used gather  respondent not be fully informed about the study  Online survey higher completion rates than paper survey  interviewer should be a neutral medium  Pros: o shouldn’t affect respondents perception of a question or the answer o responses written, already organized for analysis o dress in a fashion similar to interviewees o Survey sites tracks who participated/refused o be pleasant, relaxed and friendly  Cons:  show genuine interest to get to know the respondent w/o o Survey sites doesn’t allow complete question format freedom appearing to be spy o not all population are good fit for online survey o record answers exactly as given with no summaries, paraphrase, or correct bad grammar Strength and Weaknesses of Surveys  will not know coding until read ~100 responses  Pros: o add marginal comments of interpretations, reasoning behind them o Survey useful describing larger population o prepare specifications, explanations for questions o Develop operation definitions from actual observations  Interviewer must study questions, read w/o error like natural convo.  vs. experiments, need commitment in advance o prepare specifications, explanations for questions o Strong on reliability  more than 1 interviewer, req. training & supervision o Repurpose data, allow secondary analysis  cheaper and faster than doing original survey  Cons: o Req. standardization, fit round pegs into square holes o Weak on validity b/c artificiality o Secondary analysis data collection doesn’t reflect purpose of study CHAPTER 10 – UNOBSTRUCTIVE RESEARCH  UNOBSTRUCTIVE RESEARCH – study social behavior w/o affecting it  ex. frequency the word “love” appears in a book o can be qualitative/quantitative o LATENT CONTENT – underlying meaning of communication  ex. holistic judgment of the book regarding the message “love” Analyzing Existing Statistics o Conceptualization and creation of code categories  Uses existing official or quasi-official data, not secondary analysis  Conceptualization and Operationalization typically involve o no ethical approval req. but info may be constrained interaction of theoretical concerns and empirical observations  Used as supplemental source of data  inductive, deductive methods should be used  ex. Durkheim’s Study of Suicide
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