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Canada (161,680)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC200H1 (51)

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Alexandra Marin

Lec 5 1 What units are we measuring?  Each row corresponds to a unit in the study.  The first column identifies which unit.  The remaining columns represent variables.  Each variable describes a property of the units.  So what’s the unit here? The rows!  In this case the unit is “individuals.” Each row corresponds to one individual.  If we observed the data at this level, this is the unit of observation.  If we analyze the data at this level, this is the unit of analysis. Beware the Ecological Fallacy!  Finding: In towns with higher religiosity levels, cohabitating is less common  Conclusion: Religious people are less likely to cohabit than non‐religious people.  Finding: In occupations with high levels of unionization, salaries are higher.  Conclusion: Workers in unions earn more than non‐unionized workers Precision andAccuracy  Precision: fineness of distinctions made between attributes composing a variable  What does 8 years old really mean?  What does 2 years ago really mean?  What does 5.2 km from here really mean?  Accuracy: how reflective is a measure of the actual attribute of a variable Reliability Whether a particular measurement yields the same results when applied repeatedly to the same object/person Validity extent to which an empirical measure adequately reflects the agreed‐upon meaning of the concept Indices and scales  Indices: a composite measure created based on multiple items or indicators.  An index is constructed as a simple sum of effects or values through accumulatio n of scores or numbers. It is a sum of concepts.  A scale is constructed by assigning scores to a range of intensities of response. Is a measure of intensity of a single concept.  Scales tend to assume that when you have done the most intense aspect, you have done the least as well. Lec 5 2  Index:Add all the responses  Scale: Count the “strongest”measure
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