Textbook Notes (368,401)
Canada (161,862)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC202H1 (21)
Chapter

CH 2 textbook notes

2 Pages
73 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOC202H1
Professor
Scott Schieman
Semester
Winter

Description
CH2 – ORGANIZING DATA TO MINIMIZE STATISTICAL ERROR  Accuracy of scientific ideas tested by empirical predictions o Unit of Measure – a set interval or distance between quantities  Errors – known degrees of imprecision  LEVEL OF MEASURE OF A VARIABLE – Identifies the variable’s o Error reduction relies on understanding predictive relationships measurement properties, which determine the kind of mathematical among variables operations (addition, etc.) that can be appropriately used with it and the o STATISTICAL ERROR – Know degrees of imprecision in the procedures statistical formulas that can be used w/ it in testing theoretical hypotheses used to gather and process information o NOMINAL VARIABLES – name categories codes merely indicate a difference in category, class, quality, or kind Controlling Sampling Error  Statistical analysis involves sampling  No meaningful rank in magnitude, numbers arbitrarily chosen  No sense of degree w/ nominal variables o Sampling Error – inaccuracy in prediction about a population that  Dichotomous Variable – variable with only two categories results from the fact that we do not observe every subject in the o ORDINAL VARIABLES – Nominal w/ allowing ranks (high to low) population  Observation – a measurement of a single person  Can be named categories or numerical scores  Ex. Social class (upper-lower), education level (senior, junior)  Summary Calculation – summing up a group of measurements, based on a  Ex. Likert scoring to survey questions set of observations o INTERVAL VARIABLES – Numerical scores w/ defined unit of measure o Research interests usually w/ summary statements of the group  Allow add, subtract, multiple, divide scores, compute averages  Usually small # subjects to draw conclusions on larger pop.  Differences in amount, quantity, degree numerically  A POPULATION – a large group of people (or objects) of particular interest  Ex. Fahrenheit, interval between degrees same that we desire to study and understand  Vs. Ordinal, has set unit of measure  A SAMPLE – a small group of the population; the sample is observed and measured and then used to draw conclusions on the population  Subtraction btwn ordinal = difference in rank not distance btwn scores  A PARAMETER – a summary calculation of measurements made on all o RATIO VARIABLES – Interval w/ true zero point, zero means none subjects in a population  Ex. Weight, height, GPA, distance, population size o Determine true parameter need survey entire population  Interval may have zero but is arbitrary  A STATISTIC – a summary calculation of measurements made on a sample  Check ratio vs. interval, check if a ratio is meaningful to estimate a parameter of the population  Ratio – the amount of one observation in relation to another o A estimate, tool to draw conclusions about a population in general  Ex. Weight, 40g to 20g has 2:1 ratio  Conclusion from sample not absolutely correct, only estimations st nd rd rd rd st  Degree of error/confidence in predictions determinable w/ logic  Ex. 1 , 2 & 3 , 3 isn’t 3 times worse than 1  Dummy Coding – change nominal/ordinal into interval/ratio w/ artificial o Statistical Generalization – conclusions about a population made w/ numerical scores –ex. Index coding proper statistical procedures  Unit of measure – for interval/ratio variables only o Statistical Estimate – report of a summary measurement based on:  1. Systematic sampling & precise measurements o Fixes set interval for the numerical values used as scores for an  2. Reported w/ known degrees of error & confidence interval/ratio variable –ex. Kg, cm, mL o Different from level of measurement o Guesstimate – a report of a summary measurement based on limited and usually subjective personal experiences, anecdotal evidence, or Coding and Counting Observations hasty casual observation  Codebook – a concise description of the symbols that signify each score of  Stereotype – a false generalization, guided by feelings each variable  Probability Theory – the analysis and understanding of chance occurrences o Use number symbols for categories b/c easier counting & sorting o allows compute confidence/accuracy degrees w/ conclusion on pop. o Response coding may introduce measurement error, req. precision o Allows comput
More Less

Related notes for SOC202H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit