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SOC205H1 (16)
Chapter 1&2

chapter 1 &2

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University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

1. Canadian urbanization in Historical and Global Perspective 1/22/2013 12:19:00 PM The City in History  most human societies historically were hunter-gatherers and lived a nomadic lifestyle; settlements were only temporary.  Evidence of early cities/settlements were found by archaelogists in China, Mesoamerica and India; these early cities were small and were spread out through the region instead of being one centralized city  Urbanization of early cities was a defensive measure and also a reflection of influence and power o The development of agriculture allowed people to settle in one area instead of moving around looking for food; this allowed people to pursue other activities like the arts and science  The earliest known settlements is though to be Jericho (Israel) and Catal Hayuk (turkey)  Characteristics of early cities/settlements o Dominant Authority  There was some sort of authority governing the masses. Ie. Kings, Priests.  This kind of leadership was nessecary to not only organize people but also build structures for compact living o None of these settlements grew continuously  All of these early settlements collapsed all of a sudden; this means they weren’t linked with neigbouring cities;  One reason for this collapse might be due to the erosion of the authority figures.  The most advanced of ancient cities were those of the Greeks and Romans (Athens & Corinth); Architecturally these cities were known for their Acropolis (highest point in the city), and their vast market places and their advanced infrastructure (roads, aqueducts)  All cities ancient or new have one thing in common they all depend on their Hinterland (location beyond cities that provide food and supplies for urban living)  Cities also gave rise to Organized Warfare; Most ancient cities were the seat of an empire, and when empires fell leadership eroded and cities were abandoned. o When the Roman empire fell, it ushered in the Dark ages; settlements once again became scattered and small; leadership was decentralized and there were infighting amongst Lord’s within the same population. o However by the renaissance cities like Paris and Venice started to blossom, and faced a huge population boom; lack of infrastructure led to widespread disease and death (black plague) Global Urbanization  The Agricultural Revolution o The key reason for permanent settlements were the domestication of plants and animals, this was the first stage of the agricultural revolution the second stage was the mechanization of agriculture o Humans no longer had to move to their food supply but create their own. o Once people started creating more food then required (surplus value) certain people were freed from the obligations of subsistence and were free to pursue other interests like building, inventing and writing. o Consequences of Surplus food  Creation of a more complex division of labor  The production of a surplus supported hierarchical society in which the leaders could extract a portion of the surplus as tax, which would be used to control those not in agriculture.  The existence of a ruler controlled surplus required an administrative structure to manage the surplus and the social controls that rewarded those who conformed to the wishes of the ruler and punished the ones who rebelled  Differences in the distribution of the surplus created social inequalities (some people lived leisurely while others worked hard; nobles-peasents)  Capitalism, Industrialism and Trade o In the post feudal era, the main change was the exchange of labor for monetary reward (instead of food, shelter, etc) and and increase in Craft production; this led to the creation of a new social class of entrepreneurs, the emergence of Capitalism and the creation of the Market Economy. o This development in the social structure led to the selling of labour and the emergence of the factory culture; Individuals weren’t stratified by status and property no more but status and achievement o Industrial Revolution:  Introduced a new class dialectic; Rich Entrepreneurs vs poorly paid labourers  Factory owners wanted to maximize profit and in turn exploited the workers; In order to find new oppurtunities people flocked to these cities to work in the factories  Lack of infrastructure led to widespread poverty, crowded living conditions and pollution.  The factory was a symbol for a new kind of city; it was both space intensive and labor intensive activity; meaning large number of people could find employment in a small space (in contrast to a farm) this allowed larger, denser cities possible.  The Industrial revolution, also introduced the concept of “unemployment”, jobs depended on market conditions  Rapid urbanization was made possible by the industrial revolution; from 1600 to 1800 the population of English cities increased 600 percent; the rural non agricultural population grew by 249 % compared to the rural agricultural population which increased only 9%  Colonialism o Dominant cities like London, Amsterdam wanted to expand their hinterlands and therefore sought out new lands to take over (Colonialism) o As wealth and power grew in the European cities; a consumer based existed for materials and products available in far away countries this led to the creation of Port cities in those countries which served as a medium for their imperial dominance. What were some the characteristics of these cities?  They were Administrative centres structured by representatives from the empire government, its financial institutions and its merchants  They served as an Intermediary between the empire and the colonial hinterland; they served as conduits of economic and cultural penetration into the colony  Social Polarity existed between the expatriates and unskilled or semi skilled indigenous people; in places where there was a large population of natives the city was divided between the foreign elite and the poor indigenous population; in places where the native population was scattered they were basically pushed off the land for empire colonies/cities; The cities reflected the architectural design and laws of the colonizing country  Colonial Cities often became Primate Cities (which greatly surpass the size of any other urban area in a country) the values and culture of Primate cities differed greatly from the surround area; however the primate city had the greatest power and control of resources in contrast to the national territory (Lima, Rio, Jakarta) Urban restructuring and the World Economy  The linking of merchant capitalism and industrial capitalism led to a World Economy; Economic relations were not solely tied to one nation and its area but it transcended to a global level and created a global division of labor o Core Countries; Have the greatest pools of capital, technological innovation and management skills and inturn control Peripheral countries which are poorer and whose primary assests are cheap labor and resources. The core countries and peripheral countries are interdependent however it is clear that the core countries dominate this relationship and at times exploit the periphery for its own interests o Cities serve as both the primary destination and the conduit of this international activity; every nation has cities that serve as centres of finance and decision making and have intimate ties with other such cities in the global economy.  Since the industrial revolution the prosperity of cities incore countries were due to the manufacturing; this notion that manufacturing should be as close to the markets as possible meant that raw materials must be brought to the manufacturing plants; this idea of localized control is called Horizontal Integration  During the 1970s this started to change as companies started to use supplier companies and no longer controlled all aspects of the production process, for example outsourcing; this is called Vertical Disintegration  The end result was that most manufacturing shifted from core countries to cities/ countries where pollution standards, employee benefits and rights are not as strict; this resulted in Deindustrialization, cities in these core countries were no longer considered industrial cities but Post Industrial Cities, these new types of cities were dominated by a service based industry (previously manufacturing)  This shift in roles and type of industry is called Urban Restructuring o The cities in the developed world have undergone a transformation from manufacturing based to service based; and cities in the developing world have become more industrial o Core cities are normally no longer engaged in production but focused on product design and development, research and marketing; workers in developing countries need jobs and residents of core countries ant cheaper consumer goods (Interdependence) Global Differences in Urbanization  First Wave (1750-1950) o Europe and North America, age of industrialization created a lot of jobs for people; urban population grew from about 15 million to 423 million  Second Wave (1950---) o Took place in the developing countries of the world, where urban populations grew from less than the developed world (309 million) to a projected 3.9 billion by 2030  Over the 20 thcentury, the developed regions had more than twice as many urban dwellers as the developing regions but by the beginning of the 21 century the developing regions had 2.6 times more urban population than the developed nations  Asia has the highest number of urban dwellers that in any other region in the world, by 2030 Asia will have more urban dwellers in total then the rest of the world  More than half of the worlds slum population can be found in Asia, and the slum growth rate is highest in sub Saharan Africa; this is due to lack of durable housing, overcrowding and poor water and sanitation  Migration to cities at such a rate that new residents cannot be adequately integrated is called Over urbanization o The inability to find standard employment results in Subsistence Urbanization in which the struggle for survival is the main objective of daily living o This survival gives rise to an informal economy (selling things on the street, bartering)  Not all residents of the developing world are poor, core country expatriates (foreign elites) and indigineous elites are always present coupled with an already established middleclass with standard employment; however the disparity between the rich and poor is still striking (Dual Economy) The New Urban Order  Global City/World City; is a city that has a heightened position as a command and control center in the global economy. It may play a particularly important role economically but also culturally and politically o World cities contain institutions like banks, accounting companies, advertising companies, media conglomerates etc. o They also have their niches such as in culture (Los Angeles), Mecca, Vatican (religion) and Geneva (Non Government Organization) o World Cities should be understood as leading urban centres enmeshed in a context of relationships with other cities elsewhere in the world  Characteristics of Global Cities o Significant component of highly paid and highly skilled professional workers (expats) o World cities tend to be ethnically diverse but polarized between those in high paying jobs and those with low paying jobs. o As the centres of these cities become more expensive, growth shifts to the towns and cities at some distance from the core; this leads to greater Regionalization of the urban population  Los Angeles School o This school understands the metropolitan communities consisting of variety of urban nodes that are interconnected but decentralized and decentred o High land prices and high labor costs in the city core result in individuals seeking cheaper alternatives in the suburbs along with Continued growth also demands new sites outside the core which leads to a “Limitless parcelized sprawl” linked together by advances in telecommunications and superhighways Chapter 2: Dynamics of Canadian Urbanization 1/22/2013 12:19:00 PM Political Economy Approach  Decisions made by people in positions of power (business & politics) have a major impact on the patterns of urbanization
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