Textbook Notes (368,300)
Canada (161,782)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC205H1 (16)
Chapter 6

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Brent Berry

Chapter 6  Third World o The poorest nations of the world  Most third world nations are in debt to Western banks and governments or international lending organizations  Many depend on international aid to meet the basic needs of their population o The term “third world ” has fallen into disfavor in recent years , replaced by terms such as LDC, developing nations, Global South, emerging markets  Second world o Somewhat more advanced socialist countries with a planned economy and state control. The term has almost disappeared, and socialist countries are today attempting to develop free market economies and a degree of democratic government o The terms First World, Second World and Third World can be used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. The term Second World has largely fallen out of use because the circumstances to which it referred largely ended with the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union  SRO—SINGLE ROOM OCCUPANCY HOTEL. That provide extremely low-cost housing featuring very small rooms, with shared kitchen and bathroom facilities, frequently infested by rats and reaches,  Inequality in the city o Income inequality---as one important and easy way to measure inequality, and compare across cities and even counties  Based on income inequality alone, Toronto and Vancouver are the most unequal cities in CANADA o Median household incomes, youth growing up in a poor household in an extremely high-poverty neighbourhood face even more serious barriers than those in lower- poverty neigbourhood o Wealth and assets are transferred from one generation to the next  Measure inequality o Individual and household income o Means of household income o Percentage of below the poverty line o Compare the households with income below the low income cut-off  Black/white income gap has somewhat declined in the US over the past several decades. o Wealth gap is a legacy of the segregation ad exclusion of African Americans from good neighborhood as well as the protection of privilege by the wealthy, who pass to their children  Increasing levels of inequality have negative consequences for a city o Living high poverty neighborhood is literally bad for your health o Greater inequality promotes social exclusion and reduces equality of opportunity  Gated communities—created to allow the wealthy in highly unequal cities to increase security by limiting access to their neighbourhoods and home. Tend to be homogeneous in social and race  Poverty in Urban Canada o Poverty does not only mean being totally destitute but refers also to those at the lower end of the income stream who, despite struggle, are unable to attain the standard of living typical among most Canadians o Poverty is not predominantly an urban phenomenon in Canada but it has become increasingly concentrated in the cities. o Poverty rates among different population groups vary substantially from place to place (thus, composition of a population and its location are important factors to consider) o While the rate of extremely poor neighbourhood is on the rise, the magnitude and rates of poverty in Canada’s poor districts do not approach the rates and numbers in the US.  Poverty as an urban problem o The poverty debate since the 1980s has put increasing emphasis on homeless, a growing problem o Today, 7/10 poor Canadians live in an urban area; thus, poverty is viewed as primarily an urban problem  Saskia sassen o Urban inequality is likely to increase globally as result of shifts in technology and globalization o Major cities will experience greater inequality  Working poor o People who work in the formal economy, often full-time, who do not earn enough income to lift their families above the poverty line. o Working poor often worse off than similar public assistance recipient  Employment is no longer adequate protection against poverty o Rising urban inequality is making housing unaffordable o Deceasing amount affordable housing available for-income households because of  Gentrification  Urban revitalization  Urban renewal schemes   Definitions of Poverty o Absolute poverty: will refer to the income level needed for basic subsistence, that is, essential food, shelter, and housing. It should be possible to arrive at a figure or range as to what that income is (i.e. homeless) o Relative poverty: establishes the forms of poverty that depend on community standards. If, for example, someone has enough to eat and a place to sleep but lacks personal privacy, a value that we treasure in our society, he/she is living in poverty. Other indicators might include owning a car or being able to afford an occasional movie.  How is poverty measured o LICOs (Low-income cut-offs): an income threshold below which a family will likely devote too large a share of its income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing o Market based measure: includes costs of goods and services within a specific community that are needed by any household o Other measures—Basic Needs Measure (Fraser Institute)  Trends in poverty in Canada o Trends in poverty and inequality: Canadian society has become more economically polarized  The rich are getting richer, the middle class are slipping, and the poor are getting poorer o Since the 1980s, in Canada’s largest cities, the number of poor has grown, but changes in the rate of poverty depends on city, the measure used and time points used  Cities with the highest poverty rates (cities in Quebec, i.e. Montreal, Quebec
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