Textbook Notes (368,317)
Canada (161,798)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC205H1 (16)
Chapter 2

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Brent Berry

4 perspectives for studying the city  Historical development  Urbanism’s effect on individual adaptations, behavior, and culture  Spatial/Ecological processes  Structural perspectives The dynamics of Canadian Urbanization  Urbanization is a global process, globalization means that cities are increasingly related in a world system  The patterns of emerging urbanization are a results of deliberate decisions and human action  Political economy perspective—the interpretive framework that understands urbanization not as the result of natural processes but as the result of actions and decisions by those who have economic/ political power.  Government policies, political and economic power, and investment decisions have played a huge role in determining the outcomes of the process of urbanization of Canada  Canadian urbanization related to the settlement of this country by Europe, from east to west direction.  Initially organized around two function o Collection and distribution points for the staple resources o Military outposts to establish control Colonialism and staples  Staples are resource-based products that are either important for living or necessary for industry  Metropolis: dominant city were manufacturing occurs and service are provided, when capital is raised, and where decisions are made that affect the hinterland  Hinterland: frontier places that provide staple products to sustain the metropolis and that are critical to the whole nation economy  The relationship between the metropolis and hinterland is symbiotic in that they need each other but it is also tilted in the direction of the power of the metropolis, which absorbs population as well as resources from the hinterland  Important earliest staples are---fish, fur o St. John NL, first settlement o Halifax found 1749, important for its fish and for its strategic location for British Empire o Montreal :  commercial centre under Anglophone business control  surrounded by fertile agricultural land that provided an immediate hinterland as settlement became more permanent  had the most inland port for ocean transport between Canadian and Europe  Ultimately became the most important commercial and financial centre in the country as expansion into the interior took place. Commercial cities and agricultural hinterlands  Emergence of agriculture in South Ontario and Quebec consequences o Set the stage for a more permanent population than nomadic fur trade could support o It fostered the development of towns that served as community and retail centres for the agricultural population o Led development of regional centres of commerce and administration, which allowed towns to become larger cities and to take on a function that was different from merely serving as a military outpost or as an exchange point for sending good to and receiving them from Europe. Railways and the industrial city  Railway created a new range of options o All seasons link between cities and settlements, do not end with freeze-up, support more robust commercial ties o Made it possible for new settlement not serviceable by water transport to emerge in the interior. Eg London Ontario  First rail lines were established from Montreal, Toronto, and Hamilton to various American cities in 1850s  The bank Act (1871) established a centralized national branch banking system instead of a string of local banks, clearly centralized financial power  Central Canadian business interests influenced the federal government to enact policies benefiting them that had enormous urban consequences o National Policy of 1879 established a tariff wall around the new nation that taxed imports and that gave priority to Canadian produced products, indigenous manufacturing replaced foreign imports o This led to concentration and centralization, the increased tendency for populations and economic activity in a country to be located in a few urban regions, strengthened some cities and weakened others. o The Canadian west-new region of promise  Building national rail linking east and west  Canadian Pacific Railway explicitly for that purpose linked the two dominant cities in central Canada with the West  Ensured West served as captive market for central Canadian urban industries  Employment grew dramatically in central Canada, not only to supply central Canadian consumers but to provide steel, farm implements, textiles, and carious consumer goods for the markets both to the east and the west. Urbanization in the West  Vancouver received its impetus with the arrival of the CPR in 1887, but what differentiated Vancouver from other western cities was that its strategic seaport facilitated international trade (Asia) rather than just internal trade.  Winnipeg: opening of western plains through national policy, huge role in becoming 3 largest city, multicultural community, Chicago of the North  Prairie West: framed by railway and NW mounted Police  Artibise has argued that almost always, local commercial elites—civic boosters who promoted and population growth, who support any efforts or campaigns that stimulate the growth of their city   By end of World War 2, there was a well-established settlement pattern for Canada, o Urban centers and settlements were originally the result of colonial interests, so were located along bodies of water to facilitate commercial interests and demonstrate colonial power
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