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SOC220H1 (14)
Chapter 14

Gender Week 8 - GrabbGuppy chapter 14.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC220H1
Professor
Josh Curtis
Semester
Fall

Description
Gender – G+G Ch. 13 - Inequalities of Gender and Class: Charting the Sea Change Introduction • Second-wave feminism (1960s) was a movement that changed the way feminism existed – defining a “before” and “after” of significant difference • Before: men are main characters of interest, women (if there) only in supporting roles • “sea change” – means that women’s lives and inequalities between men and women are less likely to be marginalized or ignored • After: women’s experience and issues of gender are more in the foreground not background • Inequality studies tend to focus less on women’s experience – “sea change” opened up significance of women’s experience and gender for the analysis of inequality • Earlier arguments addressed stratification by “sex”, later was changed to gender • a gender perspective regards being masculine or feminine as a social achievement VS. sex that says mas/fem is natural and cannot change • Society is organized around gender identities – inequalities associated w/ being male or female 3 Levels of Challenge Level One: The Challenge ofAcknowledging Women’s Experience • make women visible – recognizes the existence of two genders not just male • fitting women into the study of stratification can mean providing only a description of the inequality and not the explanation • Marxist approaches to class analysis of capitalism were male oriented • Limitations of the “Stretch to Fit” Strategy o Fitting women into existing formulations of class analysis o Gendered theory – primarily from male experience, NOT “general” theory o Critique of neglecting women in theories – poor solution: put them into existing framework o Sex has rarely been analyzed as a factor in stratification, yet is one of the most obvious criteria for social differentiation and bases of economic, political and social inequalities o The way we include women in the stratification becomes the key area of attention Level Two: The Challenge of Explaining Gender Inequality • Inclusion of women into existing theoretical framework is not enough – focus should be on identification and examination of gender inequality • Revise class analysis in ways to better reflect the historical and contemporary reality that the working class has two sexes • Gender and class would not have the same analytical status – class would be primary • Theory of capitalism can be revised to encompass gender inequalities • Dual system theory (Hartmann) – capitalism was sex blind, gendered hierarchy was needed to identify the positioning of individuals within the structure of capitalism • Dual system theory involved the recognition that class categories cannot be the basis of a general theory of inequality • Gender and race ‘fractionalize’class categories • Research within the domestic sphere also exposed inequalities among women (immigrants) • Immigrant women working as live-in domestic household workers (female employing a female) – adds class and race complexities to gender inequalities Level Three: The Challenge of Multi
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