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Canada (161,862)
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SOC244H1 (11)

Culture, health, and illness.docx

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Culture health and illnessDoctors and their patients even if they come from the sm social and cultural background view ill health in very different ways Their perspectives are based on very different premises employ a different system of proof and assess the efficacy of treatment in a different wayDisease the doctors perspectivethe medical profession can be seen as a healing subculture wit its own world view In the process medical education students undergo a form of enculturation whereby they gradually acquire a perspective on ill health that will last throughout their professional lifeSome of the basic premses of this medical perspective are1 humanitarian outlook2 Scientific rationality3 the emphasis on objective numerical measurement4 the emphasis on physiochemical data5 mindbody dualism6 view of diseases as entities7 Reductionism8 the emphasis on the individual patient rather than on the family or communitysymptoms achieve their meaning in relation to physiological states which are interpreted as the referents of the symptomsgreater focus on the real biology than the psychological or sociologicalshift in how doctors collect informationtraditional method was by listening to the patients symptoms and how they developed the history and then searching for objective physical signs the examinationincreasingly though modern medicine has come to rely on diagnostic tech to collect and measure clinical factsthis implies a shift the subjective the patients subjective symptoms towards notionally objective forms of diagnosisthis has led to increased used of numerical definitions Now diseases have to have certain measurements to be classified in a certain way and certain measurements to be normalDisease then is seen as a deviation from these normal values accompanied by abnormalities in the structure or function of body organs or systemsDiseasesthe medical defn of ill health is largely based on objectively demonstrable physical changes in the bodys structure or function which can be quantified by reference to normal physiological measurementsthis perspective does not include the social cultural and psychological dimensions of ill health and the context which it appears which determine the meaning of the disease for the individual patients and those around themoften considered SES culture and religion irrelevant in diagnosis or treatment decisionsin modern medicine the basic dualism still remains of bodymind body for the doctors mind for the psychiatristsReductionisma further point is that modern medicine is often very reductionist in its approachthe expectation of the specialities of public health and family medicine its focus is mainly on the individual patient rather than on their families communities or wider societyin some cases that focus has moved beyond the ind to concentrate instead on a particular diseased organ system or group of cells within the bodyhigher prestige and wages for those who cure than those who merely careRange of medical modelsin understanding doctor and pateinent interactions one should ask which type of doctornot all doctor interactions the same
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