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SOC246H1 (20)
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no career .odt

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC246H1
Professor
Markus Schafer
Semester
Fall

Description
1 No career for you: is that a good or bad thing? • How organizational restructuring has changed employment relationships, job stability and job security • career: with the idea of pathway or trajectory, all of which denote a sequence of experience or roles • career – have duration • career sequence have identifiable occasions of entry and exit • career is used to describe a sequence of work or employment experience • prescriptive sense: career is an orderly progression occurring within a firm that offers a career ladder and chances for promotion as part of a so called internal labor market • “” this narrow ( prescriptive) use of the term omits many kinds of employment opportunity and experience • neutral way to talk about career including all sorts of job histories, ones with and without uni lineal progression and ones that many unfold across organizational and industrial boundaries contrast between career and career line • a career is an individual's job history • career line is an empirical regularity in the labour market, a sequence of jobs in which there is a high probability of movement from one position to another • a worker has a career by occupying an institutionalized career line • career gives the workers the expectations of ongoing employment: steady work, job stability, security • workers with career line jobs count on continuity • the expectation of ongoing employment is shared with others in the job holder's social network and so the enduring nature of the employment relationship is a kind of symbolic life source: an outlook about the way that life will go • so called standard work arrangements- characterized as work done on a full time basis that continues indefinitely and is performed at the employer's place of business under the employer's control • is it possible to have a career of steady predictable employment in nonstandard jobs a category that includes part time and contract work and self employment • workers ho have knowledge and skill that are in high demand have control over their conditions of work - from one industrial to another e.g. Nurse • The reduced availability of stable employment begun in the 1970s Organizational Restructuring • contingent work : employment not expected to continue • what resulted were workplaces designed strategically to be more responsive to changing conditions and demands 2 Flexibility of two kinds 1) functional flexibility: asked employees to become more involved in task design, decision making, and training and hence more involved in task design, decision making and training and more engaged in securing organizational outcomes 2) numerical flexibility: had organizations committing themselves to a smaller core workforce, had organizations committing themselves to a smaller core workforce, while externalizing nor etask among contingent, part time and contract workers • term downsize - the redesign of automobiles – refashioning of the company • the reorganized work have fewer levels of hierarchy- much flatter • it is narrower with workers, human resources and materials to be acquired or shed as conditions dictate • reengineered firm still needs to be produced goods and service still needs to respond to customers but it does so using more contingent and nonstandard work arrangements • this lowers the quality of jobs that come with lower wages and fewer benefits such as health insurance and pension • workers not subject to flexible staffing are the ostensible winners of organizational restructuring insulated from competition for their jobs within internal labour market • “” may face a less determinant career ladder , the task shifting demands of functional flexibility, the scrutiny of performance based on job evaluation and ongoing anxiety about the next round of restructuring • contingent workers “ you job could be eliminated tomorrow” • in the mid 1970s and 1980 proportion claiming to have had monthlong unemployment, for the those in the 30s – 10% same for the 40s even though they are in the work force longer • unemployment events increased in the first decade of the period to a level that has been consistently reported since the mid 1980s • 30 to 40% of adult full time workers have had an experience of discontinuous employment • men who held their jobs the longest (ages. 58 – 62) who were near the end of other careers • among men survey in 1980 the median longest job was 21 years • for men less than a high school education – the longest went from the median of 23 to 17 years • more pessimistic during the 1977 and 1996 - (1990) than 1980s • s table job is not necessarily a secure one • although the economy still provides good jobs, their security has been undermined – by the volatility of product markets, which makes firms fragile by increasing practice of outside hiring and by risk shifting from employers to employees, that is declining coverage for health insurance and pension 1) secular change in job stability and security have also been investigated abroad • at well employment: where employers and employee are more free to terminate employment at any time 3 2) organizational restructuring is only one reason for short tenures and multiple job careers • a lot of job mobility is voluntary more so tight labour markets, when workers ope to improve their circumstances • people’s own choices and agency may keep them from steady work also TheAffordance of a career 6 types of lifestyle feature that a career line may afford first • career yields a stream of income • extended tenure and continuous income are guarantors of a stronger pension position – social security retirement benefits, the traditional defined benefits pension or a defined continuation plan • pension become the future stream of income that is the necessary condition for retirement cumulative advantages • career income makes consumer debt more feasible, allowing people to borrow for immediate unaffordable items such as house, education, automobile, while assuming a reasonable risk that the debt can be paid • predictable paychecks allow people to meet insurance contracts on life an property protecting themselves against loss • paid vacation come with career makes leisure consumption predictable and scheduler • savings – course of income reduces the need for liquidity and large amount of cash on hand freeing money to be tied up in a longer term arrangement with more favourable rates of return second • career put a consistent footing under family life • one career stabilizes a marriage, two is better • expectation of continuous employment facilitates the creation of household, and maintenances sets a standard of living and insulates from the financial shortfalls. • Self selection to partners with career prospects • raising children • careers have positive effect on family formation and to govern its timing • dual earners limit the number of children • parents can become role models • socialize them to fit for educational attainment • adults with career lend their family to a stable status in the community e.g. I'm the one whose mother is a ... - to hand matters and remembered • parents mechanism for intergeneration transmission of advantage • careers don't benefit every relationship e.g. When the demands compete with family roles .. e.e.g women's career Third • work career requires a regime for the body 4 • act of daily presenting oneself at a workplace, ready for the functions of jobs calls out pattern of behaviours that generally tend to preserve well being • there is dangerous, stressful and fatiguing work - can do the body harm • show up everyday limit the more self abusive practices • the discipline of daily work raises better hygiene regarding personal cleanliness, sleep , d
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