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Chapter 10

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Brent Berry

SOC312 Chapter 10: Urbanization Basic Concepts and Measures  Urbanization: The process by which the population concentration intensifies in localities  Urbanization is characterized by 3 developments: 1. Progressive concentration of people + economic activity in cities 2. Shift in the national economy a. Non-agricultural mode of production becomes dominant 3. Increasing diffusion of technological innovation a. Spreads from larger  smaller urban and then rural so that urban and rural become similar in extent and intensity of technology as well as lifestyles, values, attitudes  Urbanism: refers to the style of life found in urban areas  City personal and isolating, no community o Also a place of innovation and cultural creativity because it’s in an anonymous environment so possible for people of like orientations to form associations for the purposes of promoting activities of common interest What is ‘urban’?  Canada, urban population comprises all incorporated places that have a pop of at least 1000 and a density of at least 400 persons per square kilometre (everywhere else is rural) o But definitions of urban differs for every country The Urban-Rural Dichotomy: An obsolete concept?  The rural-urban dichotomy (once commonly used to describe the social, demographic, economic and spatial dimensions of urban and rural areas) is to simplistic  Significant changes in communication technologies, transportation, and economic activity have brought about new forms of urbanization that are best studied using a multidimensional system  Consider ways in which urban and rural functions are increasingly intermixed: o Advances in transportation and communication technologies  Megalopolises: A very large, heavily populated city Basic Measures of Urbanization:  Urban Proportion: refers to percentage of a country’s population that resides in areas that are designated as ‘urban’ o Limitation  is the wide variation (urban population is defined differently in different nations), so hard to compare rates of different nations  Percentage Change in urban Proportion o Measures the magnitude of increase or decrease between any two points in time of the population living in urban areas  Rate of Growth of Urban Population o Examine rate of growth in actual number of people that live in urban areas rather than looking at change in the urban proportion o If time relatively short, use arithmetic, o If interval is longer than exponential or geometric better  Distribution of Urban Population by Size of settlement o Need to create size categories of settlements, classify pop according to these categories  Change in the number of settlements of a given population size o Look at increase and decrease in the number of settlements of each size Components of Urbanization  Urbanization is driven by fertility, mortality, immigration, emigration  The greater rate of growth of national population, the faster the rate of urbanization  Annexation: process in which a city artificially expands its geographical boundaries and also its population size by appropriating adjacent land or territory that typically contains sparsely or densely populated smaller settlements  Incorporation of new places: legal/administrative process that formalizes the establishes of settlements as towns or cities o Essentially increases number of towns and cities in a country  Prior to Industrial Revolution, European cities grew mostly through migration (characterized by high mortality rates) o Due to underdeveloped socioeconomic conditions and widespread infectious diseases  Cities in Europe did not reach self-maintenance (in terms of pop growth through natural increase) until 18 and 19 centuries th th  Over 19 and 20 C, natural increase replaced migration as the main factor in urban growth  Natural increase is responsible for a large portion of urban pop growth in most contemporary developing countries, accounting for over half of urban pop growth o But over the whole country, it’s not spread out evenly o A lot of regions growth wasn’t due to natural increase but by net migration and reclassification (annexation) o As fertility rates continue to decline in developing countries, internal migration plays a greater role Urbanization History Early Origins of cities:  3 requirements for first cities to emerge: 1. An ecological base conducive to the development of viable agriculture (favourable climate, soil, water) 2. Gradual improvements in technology to produce surplus food and distribute it to the pop 3. A complex, socially stratified mode of organization (with specialization and coordination of economic activities)  Abundant food productions allowed people to form settlements that would become densely populated  Many early cities eventually disappeared due to warfare, diseases, etc. (ie Babylon)  But some cities remain (Rome, Athens)  because they could reconstruct, adapt and flourish as centres of commerce, culture, knowledge, religion and political influence  Sjoberg classified cities through history into 4 major categories: o Folk-preliterate society o Feudal town o Pre-industrial city o Urban-industrial city after Industrial Revolution Industrialization and Urbanization  Why did industrialization lead to rising levels of urbanization?  During early stages of pop explosion in Europe, majority lived on farms in rural communities o High rates of natural increase o Problem because had to divide up land smaller and smaller and people began to look for jobs in cities (more abundant)  Shift in economy based on urban industrial manufacturing Urban Systems  Urban Systems: networks consisting of cities, towns, and smaller urban settlements connected by roads, communication systems, and social and economic activity  Urban system is interdependent  no one town/city is wholly self-sufficient o Characterized
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