Textbook Notes (362,902)
Canada (158,096)
Sociology (1,479)
SOC312H1 (25)
Chapter 12

SOC312 Chapter 12.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

SOC312: Chapter 12 Demographic Change and Policy Changes Introduction  Most of the growth over this century will take place in the developing countries, which will only worsen the dire socioeconomic conditions of these societies  The world’s pop will increasingly get older, but aging will be most intense in the most advanced societies Population Policy  Population policy: objective plan formulated by the government to reduce, increase or stabilize population growth rates over some specified period of time  Aim of population policies is to effect quantitative change through 1+ demographic variables (fertility, mortality, migration) to reduce/increase rate of pop growth  Direct population policies: Policies with a direct bearing on fertility, mortality, or migration o Ex. Family planning programs  aimed at affecting birth rates, through effective contraceptives and education  Indirect policies: programs designed to influence non-demographic variables that have an indirect impact on the key demographic variables o Ex. Programs such as immunization programs, anti-malaria campaigns in poor countries  There are projections that they make where there are high, medium, low, no change scenarios  for future forecasts of pop growth o Ex. populations where fertility has been below replacement for many years, the projections could forecast eventual deficits in the working age population Population Policy-Societal Interrelationships  The process of formulating and implementing population policy always takes place within a broader societal context  Societal well-being is an important determinant of a country’s demographic regime  Depending on how governments perceive demographic/socioeconomic conditions o country, will devise policies according to four different aims: 1. To raise the rate of natural increase 2. To reduce the rate of natural increase 3. To maintain the current rate of natural increase 4. To achieve population growth through immigration  For a democratic society, because elected politicians typically hold office for only a few years, they’re no long term planning. There’s also an emphasis on individual freedom and welfare as paramount to broader societal objectivities  In non-democratic regimes, they have more leeway in the realm of population policy o Ex. China’s one child policy (family planning) o This policy wouldn’t have worked in a democratic society  violates freedom of the individual o Problem  increase in level of sex-selective abortions, more reported cases of neglect, abandonment, infanticide of girls o 4:2:1 problem  2- couple who takes care of the 4 parents and 1 child  Compare to India: o Ex. India largest democracy in the world o Indian government officials tried to promote use of condoms but approach didn’t work. o There were sterilization campaign, o Overall, natural increase has decreased but still really high  Country’s demographic regime (whether post-transitional, transitional, or delayed transitional) is closely inked to the level of societal well being o Greater the level of well being, greater the likelihood that birth and death rates will be under control Social Policy and Its Connection to Population Policy  Population policy should intervene in demographic matters to enhance the well- being of the population  Social Policy: legal structures created and maintained by a government to ensure minimum standards of well-being for the population. Operates through 1 of 2 principles: 1. The mitigation of risk for individuals and their families under conditions of loss a. Ex. employment insurance, health insurance, welfare, etc. 2. The maintenance of equity standards in access to socioeconomic opportunities and human rights a. Ex. rights and freedoms of individual, universal education, etc.  Social policy has an INDIRECT effect on demography because it aims to reduce insecurity + hardship, so there fertility rates may be controlled  Welfare democracies  based on idea of social contract o People agree to be governed by elected individuals who, in turn, are expected to act in the best interests of the majority Demographic Concerns: A Global Perspective The Demographic Divide  Developing world  high birth and d
More Less

Related notes for SOC312H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.