Textbook Notes (363,559)
Canada (158,426)
Sociology (1,481)
SOC312H1 (26)
Chapter 5

SOC312H1 Chapter 5: Nuptiality.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

Chapter 5: Nuptiality Nuptiality in Social Demographic Analysis - Nuptiality refers to the frequency or incidence of marriage in a population Nuptiality as a demographic process Measures of Nuptiality - Measure of marriage in a given population is the crude marriage rate (CMR) o CMR = M/P x 1, 000 where M represents the total number of marriages (including both first marriages and remarriages) that take place in a given year, and P is the mid year population - Crude divorce rate (CDivR) = D/P x 1000 where D stands for number of divorces in a given year and P is the mid year population f - General marriage rate (GMR) = M/ P 15+x 1000 f f - General divorce rate (GDivR) = D/ P 15+ x 1000 where P 15+ is the number of females aged 15 and older at mid-year - Refined Marriage Rate: RMR = M/ P f s,d,w x 1000 15+, f - Refined Divorce Rate = D/ P marx 1000 f o Where P 15+,s,d,w is the single, divorced and widowed female population, at midyear and P f is the married female population at midyear mar First Marriage Rate - First marriages are more strongly correlated with the birth rate than are second or high order marriages - The first marriage rate is the number of firs marriages divided by mid year never f married (single) population: FMR = M / P 1 nmx 1000 where M is m1rriages of order 1 (ie first marriages) and P fnmis the midyear never married population aged 15 and older - Second order marriage rates can be computed in same way by making numerator the number of second marriages, and the denominator the population aged 15 and older that is widowed or divorced Age Specific Marriage and Divorce Rates - As in cases of mortality and fertility and fertility the age composition of population can affect incidence of marriage and divorce within it - Computing age specific rates make it possible to focus on trends within each specific age category while controlling for the size of the population in each age group - Age specific marriage rate (MR ) = M / xX x nm x 1000 where x signifies a given age category (either single years of age or grouped age categories), M, is the number of marriages to those in the age category x occurring in a given year, and PX nmis the number of married persons aged x at mid year Total Marriage Rate - The TMR represents average number of marriages occurring in a given period in the population aged 15 and older Average Age at Marriage - Important measure, frequently used in the demographic literature - Typically, it is computed separately for men (grooms) and women (brides) Nuptiality Trends: Cross-national Overview Industrialized Countries First Marriage - Some of the decline in total first marriage rates can be attributed to tendency to postpone marriage until later in life and some to the rejection of formal marriage Divorce and Cohabitation Divorce - Much of the variation in divorce rates across societies can be traced to differences in the laws governing the legal dissolution of marriages and how long it has been since those laws were liberalized - In Italy for example, divorce became legal only in 1971, for this reason italy’s divorce rate remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world - In most western European countries, however, it appears that divorce rates may have peaked in the 1990s and have since stabilized - The recent slowdown in divorce rates can be largely attributed to the decline in formal marriage over recent years, since a couple who were not married in the first place don’t need a divorce in order to dissolve their union Cohabitation - Wide acceptance of cohabitation in Scandinavian countries has been facilitated by region’s historical tendency to see marriage as a contract between two individuals; by contrast, cohabitation is generally discouraged in societies that have traditionally seen marriage primarily as a contract between families, as is in the case in southern Europe - Destardardization of family forms as a reflection of increasing emphasis on personal choice among the younger generations with respect t sexuality, mate selection, and conjugal relationships: cohabitation can thus be seen as one component in the process in which individual behavior is becoming less determined by traditional and institutional arrangements and more open to individual choice - Patterns of cohabitation can be gauged by examining the proportions of women who by age 25 have entered a cohabitating union as their first conjugal relationship - First, in all countries selected, younger generations have been much more likely than their predecessors to cohabit without marriage. - Second there are sharp differentials in the intensity of the cohabitation phenomenon - Third, the bastions of cohabitation are Sweden, and Norway - Fourth, even in Italy, Spain and Hungary cohabitation has increased across the birth cohorts. Perhaps in countries where rates of cohabitation are generally low, cohabiting couples are very likely to marry within five years, whereas in countries where rates of consensual unions are high, this tendency is generally minor Developing Countries: Nuptiality Patterns - The implications of age of first marriage has been rising is that since later marriage usually leads to reductions in fertility and a amore rapid progression through demographic transition - With respect to divorce, rates of family dissolution are on the increase; marital instability is on the rise Africa - Marriage or some similar form of conjugal union is widespread - Among cultural factors that help to explain regional variations in marriage in Africa are differences in the rules of governing things like property succession and dowry and the norms aimed at controlling female sexuality Asia - Although marriage remains almost universal, there are notable cross country variations Latin America - Nuptiality levels have remained remarkably stable over past 50 years despite economic stagnation and restructuring - 3 note-worthy trends in the region o 1. Marriage or the equivalent consensual union is nearly universal and still occurs relatively early in life for women (between ages of 20 and 25) o 2. the proportion of the population entering into marriages or consensual unions increased over the 50 years period from already very high levels o 3. Rates of divorce and separation though increasing slightly are still low - People adjusted to changing social and economic conditions by lowering fertility within marriage rather than delaying or forgoing marriage itself Explanations of Nuptiality Change - Distinctive marks of European patterns are (1) a high age a marriage and (2) a high proportion of people who never marry at all The Flight From Marriage” Theoretical Explanations - Today the nuclear family may still be the primary unit for o Reproduction o Common residence o Economic cooperation o Socialization of children o Satisfaction of adults sexual needs - The decline of the male breadwinner system began gradually in the 1950’s and early 1960’s when women started seeking alternatives to marriage and total commitment to reproduction and childbearing - Entry into labour force meant that women no longer need to reply on matrimony for economic insecurity. For many scholars this shift was a primary cause of family change in industrialized countries - Steady decline since 1960 in proportion of women marrying at ages 20-24 marked beginning of radical change in family. Today, the median age a first marriage continues to rise and increasing numbers of people are choosing not to marry at all The Second Demographic Transition Perspective - Structural changes associated with modernization have been accompanied by changes in societal values regarding marriage and the family  aka second demographic transition o In most post-modern societies tradition has largely ceased to function as a guiding principle in people’s lives: in its place an ethos of individualism, complemented by secularism and materialism is leading growing numbers of young people to choose alternative lifestyles, especially in areas of sexuality and conjugal behavior o 2 distinguishing features of current system are high marital mobility (resulting from increasing prevalence of divorce) and growing diversity of household models o Late marriage, divorce, cohabitation, same sex unions are a part of same shift in values away from family and towards individual o These tendencies pervasive among young people in postmodern societies stem from 2 sources: a personal desire for greater self-fulfillment and a growing tolerance of diversity in other individuals’ lifestyles - Some theorists argue a post-materialist tendency among young people to reject the conventional, materialistic aspirations of the bourgeoisie in favour of emotional intimacy or what Giddens refers to as the pure relationship D
More Less

Related notes for SOC312H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.