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Chapter 8

SOC312H1 Chapter 8.docx

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Brent Berry

Chapter 8: Internal Migration Basic Concepts: Defining Terms Migration - in demography migration is usually understood to have 3 main components: o the crossing of administrative boundaries o long distance travel o permanent or semi-permanent change in residence Scale of Analysis - first step in any investigation of migration is to classify study population into two groups: those have changed address during a specified interval and those who have not - a subset of the movers will be migrants: people who not only changed address but who moved to a diff administrative jurisdiction (community, town, city, or province) - another subset will consist of people who changed their address but stayed within same administrative area or jurisdiction  people in this category are called non-migrants; examples include individuals who move house within the same community and students who move away from their usual community but only for a limited period of time to attend college or uni - transients who may move from one jurisdiction to another but have non fixed address and whose movements therefore cannot be easily traced, are also treated as non- migrants - these sorts of temporary and transient moves are generally not considered to fall within definition of migration - in case of international migration: the term immigrant refers to a citizen or permanent resident of a country who moves into another country - in-migrant: a person who migrates into one administrative area from another area within the same country - emigrant: people who leave one country and relocate to different one - out-migrant: people who leave one administrative area for another within the same country The Uniqueness of Migration - all countries require that births and deaths can be reported to governmental statistical bureaus, this isn’t the case with migration Sources of Migration Statistics - the ideal migration data set would include, at a minimum, the following: o data on origins and destinations of migrants o data disaggregated by age, sex, and other characteristic (marital status, occupation, income, race/ethnicity) o data available in one-year age groups o data available annually for a large number of time periods o data produced in a timely manner o data consistent with relevant population base for calculating migration rates - Where do we obtain migration data?  most comprehensive data source is census o Typically the census will ask respondents to state their address at two points in time: one census day and at some earlier data (usually 5 years before) - Census-based data collection is unsatisfactory for at least 3 reasons: st o 1 : census question cannot detect multiple moves within the specified period  it is possible to move may times in the census period and still not be counted as having moved at all, if one happens to have returned to the original residence by the time of the next census. For this reason, census data underestimate the true extent of migration during a five year period o 2 : sampling error. Mobility question is not asked of all census respondents – only of the 20 percent of households that receive the long census form. Thus the reliability of estimate migration levels for relatively small subpopulations (ethnic and racial groups) and geographic subunits below the level of country (towns, municipalities, villages) is questionable o 3 : cannot tell us anything about emigration (movement from Canada to another country) - The clear advantage of census data is that they cover entire country and make it possible to cross classify movers by a host of individual characteristics - Longitudinal Administrative Database (LAD) is a 10% representative sample of Canadian tax filers, following over time and matched into family unites on an annual basis Basic Measures of Migration: Migration Rates - a change of residence be seen as a transition between two different states: a non-mover in the population of origin becomes a migrant in the population of origin becomes a migrant in the population of destination o this means that changes of residence in the population are the numerators when computing rates of migration. A general migration rate is calculated:  migration rate: # of persons moving in given period / population at risk of moving in the period x 1, 000 - need to calculate two rates for any given area: a rate of in migration and rate of out migration - out migration rate for an area i: o # of out migrants from area i in a given period / population of area i at the beginning of the period o Central out-migration for an area i: O / P x i, 0i0 where O is the numier of out- migrants from area i in the period, and P is the iid year population at risk of leaving area i - In migration rate for an area i = I / Pix 1i 000 - On the one hand, out migration rates make sense because the total resident population in an rea at least bears some resemblance to number of people who could move out. But this isn’t the case when it comes to the in-migration rate, since the resident population by definition cannot move into the rea it already reside and its size has no direct bearing on number of people who could move there - On the other hand, using same denominator for both in and out migration rates does have an important advantage, in that it allows us to compute 2 additional rats commonly used in the literature: o Gross migration rate (GMR): GMR = I + O / P x i, 00i i  Sum of two migratory flows for a given area: in migration plus out migration. In other words, it is the sum of the in-migration to area i plus the out-migration from area i , divided by mid-year population of area i  Provides an indication of the extent of migration turnover in a given locality during a specified period o Net Migration rate (NMR): I O / P x 1, 000 i – i i  Difference between numbers of in and out migrations for a given area during a given period, divided by population of area  Useful indicator of regional gains and losses produced by interplay between in migration and out migration and gives good sense of the relative impact of migration on the extent of a region’s overall population change  A positive net migration rate means that the population is gaining people through migratory exchanges; a negative rate means that the population is losing people  net migration rate is good reflection of geographical disparities in socioeconomic opportunities  Limitation of net migration measure becomes apparent when it is analyzed on its own, because it tells us nothing directly about magnitudes of two component parts that give rise to it; no such thing as net migrant in the real world –just people who are arriving at places or leaving them Stream-specific Migration Rates - Intensity of migration between origin place i and destination place j (MR ) can be ij computed as: o MR :ij / ijx 1i 000 where M is the nuijer of people moving from place i to place j , and P , is some measure of the population at risk of moving away from i place i (ideally the population at the start of the interval) o the intensity of migration in opposite direction from place j to place i is:  MR =ji / Pji 1,j000 where M is the numjir of people moving from place j to place I, and Pj is some measure of population at risk of moving away from place j (ideally the population at the start of the interval) Analysis of Migration Frequencies Migration Efficiency - Internal migration essentially redistributes a nation’s population through flows and counter flows between its various geographic subunits - Migration efficientcy is measured as ratio of net migration to total migration (in + out) denoted below as MER: o MER = I – i / Ii+ Oix 10i the efficiency of migration to area I is the net migration for that area (the sum of total inflow for area i) divided by gross migration for this same area (the sum of total inflows to area I from all other areas plus the sum of total outflow from area i) - Migration effectiveness ratios are expressed as percentages so in the case of area specific ratio to the MER will range between -100 and +100. High negative or positive values would indicate that net migration is an efficient mechanisms for population redistribution, generating a large net effect for the given volume of movement. Conversely values closer to 0 indicate that inter area flows are more balanced and migration services to maintain a dynamic equilibrium in terms of population distribution across geographic areas - If 100 people migrate to a given area I and 100 people leave it, the efficiency of migration to area I is zero since o 100 – 100 / 100 + 100 = 0/200 = 0 - Migration effectiveness ratio (MER ) for anyijwo pairs of origin and destination areas I and j can be expressed as : o MER = ij– M jiM +ij x ji0 whije M is the migratiji from j to i (the stream) and M ijithe migration in the opposite direction o An MER valij of 0 would imply equilibrium in the migratory exchanges between the two places i and j. A positive value would indicate that for every 100 movements between i and j area i would be the net gainer (meaning that area I the more attractive area) and therefore this particular migratory stream is efficient in redistribution population from j to i. A negative MER value woijd suggest the opposite: that area j is a net gainer in realtion to area i (or that area j is the more attractive place) and that this stream is efficient in redistributing population from I to area j Estimating Migration Using Residual Methods - Net migration = (P – P 2 – (B1- D) where B and D represent the number of births and deaths during the interval, and P and P1are the 2opulation totals at the start and the end of period, Explanations for Migration The Laws of Migration - 1. Migration and Distance: (A) most migrants travel short distances, and the volume of migration from one area to another decreases as the distance between them increases. (B) people who travel long distances tend to gravitate towards the largest urban centres, where the economic opportunities are greatest - 2. Migration by Stages: urban expansion tends to have a gradual effect on migration. People living close to the city move there to take up newly created jobs, then migrations from more remote areas of the country move in to take up jobs in the places that have been vacated - 3. Stream and counterstream. For every stream of migration one direction there is a corresponding counterstream of migration. - 4. Urban-rural differences in propensity to migrate. Migration is more likely among rural than urban populations - 5. Predominance of women among short distance migrations. Women tend to outnumber men in short distance migration, and men outnumber women in long distance migration. - 6. Technology and Migration. Technological development, to the extent that it reflects economic growth and related developments (eg. Improvements in transportation), tends to stimulate migration - 7. Dominance of economic motives. Economic considerations are the most important determinants of migration The Mobility Transition - Zelinksy, who looked at geographic mobility as both a consequence and a cause of broader societal changes - Starting from the proposition that socio economic modernization over last two centuries has roduced a mobility transition paralleling the demographic transition of the western world - He identified 7 types of geographic mobility and charted their evolution through 5 numbered ‘phases’ representing different degrees of socioeconomic complexity o Phase 1 represents most primitive pre transitional type of society, while phase V represents the most advanced, in which economic activity is largely post industrial (ie. A technologically advanced service and information based economy) o In first phase, pre-modern traditional society, people live in small communities and rely on the land for sustenance. There is little genuine residential migration in this type of society and only limited movement (for purposes such as agriculture, social visits, commerce, warfare, or religious observance ) o Next phase is early transitional is characterized by massive rural to urban relocation. Population expands rapidly, this phase may be marked by massive emigration to foreign lands. o In the late transitional phase, rural to urban migration levels off and the population movement becomes increasingly urban to urban, though there may also be increasing movement of international migrants in response to labour demand. o In the advanced society (phase IV), the majority of the population lives in urban areas. Accordingly rural to urban migration is further reduced and city to city mobility becomes the most important type of movement. In this phase a country in need of workers ay attract significant numbers of unskilled and semi skilled immigrants from underdeveloped areas of the world - However, in more advanced stages of development, zelinksy assumes that international migration will decline gradually as levels of socio-economic development rise and states begin to impose strict controls on immigration - Advanced societies will experience high levels of circulation mobility, -any form of territorial movement that involves at least one form of territorial movement that involves at least one night away from home but does not entail a permanent change of residence  this pattern is associated with economic and leisure activity - In super advanced society sophisticated communication technologies, such as internet, that allow people to work from home eliminate the need for much day to day circulation mobility, including journey to and from work Typological Models of Migration Conservation vs. Innovating Migration - Peterson: 2 types of movements: innovating (motivated by the desire to improve one’s socioeconomic status) and conservative (motivated by the desire to escape a situation that poses a significant threat to well being of individual such as a war or systematic persecution by a dominant group towards a minority) - Peterson arrived at this typology by type of migration – whether innovating or conservative – with 3 factors o Type of interaction involved: nature and humans, state (or e
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