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University of Toronto St. George

Week 10 Reading: Educational Attainments of Immigrant Offspring: Success or Segmented Assimilation – Monica Boyd Introduction:  Interest in foreign born migrants shift to experiences of their offspring o Assimilation beyond the first generation of migrants  American integration models  3 possible outcomes for offspring: 1. Straight line (Linear)  after 2-3 generations in the host society, descendants of immigrants are indistinguishable from the rest of society in behaviours and socioeconomic characteristics 2. Some groups experience inter-generational socioeconomic improvements (but accompanied by deliberate preservation of ethnic membership + continued attachment to ethnic communities) 3. Implies socioeconomic disadvantages  for groups visibly distinctive from white majority and where parental + community based resources are low  Recent investigations have 3 characteristics: 1. Study groups in the United States 2. The focus is on immigrant offspring living at home 3. In depth study of selected ethnic or racial groups  More study is required  especially that extends to other countries (not just U.S.) and assess the socioeconomic situations of the 2 generation in adulthood nd  Article investigates educational attainments of 2 gen (20-64) in Canada  Analysis of a 1996 survey  ‘1.5’ and 2 gen (age 20-64): o More years of schooling o Higher percentage completing high school RD  COMPARED TO 3 + GEN.  Contradicts the 2 gen decline thesis found in US as adult immigrant offspring in Canada (visible minorities) exceed educational attainments of other non-visible minority groups Integrating Immigrant Offspring: Does Country Context Matter:  The orthodox ‘linear/straight line’ theory articulated first by University of Chicago ~early 1900s o This approach  Increase in length of time immigrants spend in host society, each generation is further removed from their foreign born predecessors and their behaviour similar to those of American born o Variant  3 plus gen would out perform the 2 gen who in turn st would out perform the 1 gen (foreign born)  1960s, barriers to migration from non-European areas were dismantled through new immigration acts in both US and Canada  B/c of improved post-war economies in Europe, globalization, etc. shift in source countries of immigrants  In Canada, received large numbers of Asian immigrants, and Caribbean countries (to lesser degree)  <1961, 95% immigrants were born in US or in European countries, and difficult for people from non-European countries to enter Canada. But >1990, 21.5% came from US or Europe  Advanced two models of segmented assimilation: o One model posits economic advancement for 2 gen but with deliberate preservation of ethnic membership + values with continued economic attachment to ethnic communities o 2 model  immigrant offspring who are racialized on basis of their origins and color  3 factors necessary for the segmented model of socioeconomic success 1. High volume of migration from a given area 2. Sustained flows of large numbers over time 3. Residential concentration o Model assumes low level of institutional barriers to participation in core societal institutions (i.e. education + economy) o Strong version of model assumes existence of ethnic economy that is large enough to absorb success give generations of offspring  Segmented assimilation model  emphasizes downward mobility into an underclass assumes low levels of parental and community resources  Assumes highly racialized population  Large ‘involuntary minority’ population of blacks= key feature of contemporary American society o People who were brought into present society through
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