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SOC356Y1 (6)

Week 15: Reading Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Kayahara

Week 15: Technology around the World (Robinson&Martin: Off Time and Television) TV has had more impact on daily time than any other household technology o Viewing time little affected by the Internet and other new technologies Changes and Trends in Time Expenditure Hypothesis of activity displacementfunctional equivalence o A new technology will replace those activities whose functions were served by previous technologies, as when the automobile replaced the horse, etc. o And, TV displaced other platforms of mass entertainment, such as radio and movies. TV owners spending less time in kinds of activities 1. Functionally equivalent mass media activities: such as radio, movies, and light fiction print Reduction in radio listening, decline in time at the movies, and decline in book and magazine reading. 2. Social activities: outside the household Offset somewhat by increases in visiting or social contact inside the household 3. Non-free-time activities: particularly sleep, grooming, gardening and laundry The drop in these activities is largest of all www.notesolution.com By contrast, most other productive technologies, like automobiles or washing machines, linked to increases in output (miles driven, for example, or clothes cleaned) than to savings in time. o Washing dishes with a dishwasher takes people no less time than washing them by hand. Viewing time for set owners averaged an hour and a half per day in the 1960s TV viewing as a primary activity has steadily increased o In modern European countries, average viewing time is closer to twelve hours per week with about the same amount of free time (35 to 40 hours) The steady and dramatic U.S newspaper time decline (support for the functional equivalence argument) o This drop is likely related to the rising prominence of TV news in the late 1960s Radio listening as a primary activity also declined o But it has reinvented itself as a secondary activityespecially while driving Time spent reading books and magazines has remained steady or increased slightlyindicating that TV has not led to the death of print o However, TV plays a further role in dramatically reducing the reading of newspapers The dominating impact of TV on free time in countries with the Internet and personal computers www.notesolution.com
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