Week 16: Networked Work & the NAVEL Project
(Chen & Barry Wellman: Doing Business at Home and Away)
1.Demonstrate the contribution of transnational entrepreneurship to
economic ties between Canada and immigrant source countries
2.Investigate the causes and dynamics of transnational
entrepreneurship—how it is facilitated by state policies, cross-
border networks and the Internet
3.Discuss the policy implications of transnational entrepreneurship
•Transnational entrepreneur: ethnic entrepreneur whose business success
depends on contacts and associates in their home countries or a third
•The major findings of the study;
1.%42 of Chinese-Canadian entrepreneurs are transnational.
They build their business on trading goods, services,
technology, knowledge and culture between Canada and their
countries of origin.
This contributes to international trade.
2.Transnational entrepreneurs are bridge builders.
They have helped Canadian firms to do business in their
home countries or home country firms to do business in
3.Transnational enterprises comprise the more dynamic part of the
They tend to be larger in terms of revenue and employment
than their domestic counterparts.
Furthermore, transnational enterprises have expanded into
the manufacturing and wholesale sectors, while domestic
ethnic enterprises are more concentrated in the retail and
4.China is an important market that many Chinese transnational
enterprises depend on.
A growing flow of capital, goods, services and people between
Canada and China on the one hand, and the cultural and
geographic distance between the countries on the other hand,
have created business opportunities for Chinese-Canadians.
5.Exploiting resources among Overseas Chinese has become a
national project in China.
The Chinese government has established a series of policies
to encourage Overseas Chinese to return and set up
As a result, enterprises launched by transnational
entrepreneurs have grown exponentially in China
6.By promoting cross-border exchanges of knowledge, technology and
expertise, ethnic business and professional associations have
become important players in prompting transnational
Transnational entrepreneurs are significantly more likely to
be members of business associations than domestic ethnic
7.Except for immigration class, education, work experience, and
gender, there are no significant differences between transnational
entrepreneurs in most socio-demographic aspects such as age,
marital status or place of origin.
8.Cross-border networks and new communication technologies give
ethnic entrepreneurs a head start for participating in transnational
Transnational entrepreneurs depend on “glocalized” networks
that have both global connections and local interactions.
Transnational entrepreneurs have larger, more diverse
networks with more resources than non-transnational
entrepreneurs both in Canada and in their home countries.
Transnational entrepreneurs use the Internet more
productively than non-transnational entrepreneurs. The
Internet allows them to pool resources in multiple places
along their immigration trajectory.
9.Entrepreneurship needs to be an important
dimension of the policy mix for Canada to excel in
the global economy. The Canadian government
should develop a strategy to exploit the potential of
•Entrepreneurship contributes to job creation, innovation and economic
growth and immigrants have been a large, growing and dynamic source of
omany ethnic entrepreneurs engage in transnational business
odepend on contacts to their home countries or a third country for