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Chapter 4

Soc S&T- chapter 4.odt

8 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC364H1
Professor
Barry Wellman

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Chapter 4: The mobile revolution • before the mid 1990s- almost all phones were place bound The first mobile phone were heavy loads • first mobile phone took place in april 3, 1973 using a two pound instrument that had a maximum talk time of thirty minutes and took a year for the battery to recharge • motorola created a one pound phone sold for 3500 • car phone came in 1945 • transistors and battery improvements reduced the size of the phones • signalling capacity also improved and vastly set up telephone networks capacity to transmit calls • cell towers sprouted up quickly in cities and then suburb as demand grew • technology switched in the 1960s an d1970s from rotary dial phones to pushbutton touchtone phones • phone come become “smart” with pushbutton used as inputs to computer applications and the internet • low cost text messaging, using phone pushbutton complemented voice calls for many users by the early 2000s • digital camera became standard phone feature, allowing users to take pictures they could share with friends or put on the internet • powerful computer chips allow mobile phones become smart phones: connecting to the web and hosting application – GPS The world goes mobile • mobile phone become affordance for networked individuals as they become easier to carry, cheaper to use and able to function in more places • wireless computers have become lighter in weight and easier to use • mobile users increases and prices fell • the value of phone has grown in several ways • american household that were cell only no home phone rose 30 percentage • 16 of household had cell and home phone., most receive cells in their cells • 2009 survey – 45 percent of canadian say they can't leave the house with their phones and 10% cannot live without • the same demographic group that lagged in 2004 lagged in 2011 • mobile digital divide is decreasing even more quickly than internet, users have become adept to tiny keyboard • teens 75& and 94 young adult own a mobile phone by mid 2011 aged 18 to 29 • African american less than white to be wired internet user they are more likely to use a mobile phone to access the internet • may 2011 pew internet survey – 41 percent of white cell owners go online their phone, some 53 percent of cell owning blacks do • mobile internet connectivity reduces the overall internet use gap between blacks and white – same for latinos • as teen and young adult grows up, mobile phone use is becoming universal in north america • popularity of this technology changes – appartegeist • appparatgeist: the relationship of people to digital technologies and how that changes the way people relate to each other and to larger social institutions two types of mobile phone users 1. motivated by mobility - how mobile access makes them more available to others • data show mixture of young adults, road warriors and teleworkers people who tend to desire instant information • disproportionately women who cherish quick communication • more likely to be minorities than whites 2. stationary media majority – 61 percent of adult population – do not feel the pull of mobility or anything that draws them further into the digital world • landline connection are the norms for them, on their phones and computers • 27 % they are actively involved with the internet, their phone are limited to basic talking and txting and the rest 34 rarely use the phone • tend to be older, poorer have les than a university education and are more likely to live in rural area Telus canadian and technology survey july 2009 • 28% primary way to keep in touch with friends and family • 22 organize social life • the percentage doubles for younger generation Mobile revolution is a global phenomenon: mobile connectivity around the world • by 2009 3 billion phones in use and cell towers reach 80 percent of the world's population Three economic factors that made global use expand more rapidly than in NorthAmerica 1. cost of fixed landlines have been higher outside of north america 2. few countries had the extensive and expensive copper wire fibre optic infrastructures that landlines need - cell rowers are cheaper to build, when the density of mobile users is low and many places in the developing world have leapfrogged their shortage of landline and plunged into mobile revolution - people repay for their calls and share their phones - some put cash into their phones and for money transfer and purchase 3. phones are crucial in less developed countries because they are first means of telecommunication that people ever had - phone increases connectivity to people in developed world, they provide greater improvements in connectivity and social capital - increase contact with dispersed family members, expand networks and enhance sociability and support - substitute for often difficulty travel, provide price information to marketers and extend business and family relations Texting joins talking • first texting schemes were created in the late 1980s as data additions to the emerging mobile phone market • texting took off when pricing plans in Europe and US started cheap rates • older, poorer and rural people text the least • teens are networked texting • 2011 survey – ages 12 to 17 shows that the average teen texter sends and received fifty text a day - 1500 per month • two third of teens use text messaging – due to its simplicity well as the privacy of being able to communicate with being heard • all forms of mobile communication have over taken the frequency of other kinds of ICT and even in person contact • 54 percent of all those ages 12 to 17 use texting daily basis • 28 percent use mobile voice contact • 33 say face to face meeting outside school daily • 30 landline • 25 daily contact on social media • 24 use instant messaging • 11 email the least communication activity on a daily basis • teens prefer texting and talking because they can do it privately from their personal phones and texting is unobtrusive and it can be done silently in class, out with friends and at home with parents • texting can be asynchronous: busy teens can leave message for each other • more than any other group , teens are individualist and networked - they want to forge their own identities • teens and adults use micro-coordinate their live. • Toronto undergraduates do not use landlines to call close friends even if it is available • teens still exchange numbers but implicitly understand that neither will call the other until the relationship becomes more serious • teens see the mobile phone as an instrument of intimacy • they use facebook and instant messaging for more distant or newer relationship Beyond talking and texting: the smartphone • improvements in computing, storage, radio spectrum management made mobile connectivity easier and cheaper • phones became more versatile as cameras were added and apps developed • 2 pound mobile calling device into light compact multi-functional tool able to communicate, browse, create and amuse and to be in touch with social networks in an instant • social- sharing function were becoming particularly important to mobile phone by mid 2011 as they sent photos and videos to others or post online , access to social networking sites and twitter updating status “If the cell phone kept us connected to each other, then the smartphone kept us connected to the world” • easy to use app are leading to vastly increased and diversified mobile phone use • spring 2010. 35 % of US adults or 43 & of mobile phone owners have apps on their phones • most popular apps are games , social media websites , maps and directions and weather reports • Yet not many use apps on their phone or know if they have • “” this will change as people become more familiar with their phones • smartphones will likely kill several major stand alone consumer technologies – mp3 music players like Ipods and portable games, point and shoot cameras, video recorders, portable GPS Whether non web exchanges that run on the internet but not on the web, such as mobile apps, peer to peer service, video exchanges and downloads would supplant web applications as the dominant form of media and communication exchange? “the web is dead, long dive the internet Computer have become mobile and wireless • past 15 years has internet and computer become as one • spring 2011- 98% users of both .. 1996 only 19 • 63 percentAmericans are wireless connectors mid 2011 • wireless access has allowed the internet to travel with users, users can use multiple devices to connect to the internet • 32 percentAmerican gone wirelessly both their phones and their laptops The greater use of mobile connectivity has encourage greater internet use • wireless users are more likely than those who only have broadband landlines to do more internet activities Living in the cloud • cloud computing became popular in the early 2000 • cloud became useful it enable people to have access to their files and business application wherever they can grab a connected device Risk • cloud service companies may disappear , • the internet connection can go down; surveillance is easier; cracking • identity and data theft can be more devastating • e.g. T-mobile everything on your phone is gone due to server failure at Microsoft/danger. It had crashed days before without backups copies of users items • privacy invasion occurs when hacker took over twitter on december 17, 2009 replacing its content with “ this site has been hacked by iranian cyber army” Continuous access and hyper
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