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SOC366H1 (16)
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SOC366 CHAPTER NOTES.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC366H1
Professor
Lina Samuel
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2 • In preindustrial societies almost everyone worked, devoted their lives to feeding and housing themselves. They all worked making products or serving others (except royalty and nobility) Agricultural Work • most people worked in agriculture as serfs who farmed land that was owned by nobility • later were peasants who owned small parcels of land • men usually plowed and threshold, women weeded and both harvested • made cheese, bread, beer and clothes • men built houses and stayed in bed until their wives made the breakfast, and cleaned • even though women's and mens tasks overlapped, even though there was a sexual division of labour both jobs of both sexes were seen valuable • but women were referred to as 'drudges' rather than companions Manufacturing work • even before the industrialization some people worked in manufacturing • men in guilds, and women in workshops • men out earned women and enjoyed much more autonomy Women's workshops • all female work houses existed in which female residents manufactured textiles • in exchange for their labour they got board and room • textiles still considered women's work Artisans: • Guild System • ARTISANS (CRAFTWORKERS) produced a variety of products from scratch • GUILDS (ASSOCIATIONS OF TRADESPEOPLE OR CRAFT WORKERS ORGANIZED TO PROTECT THEIR MEMBERS INTERESTS) • guilds oversaw most the production that occurred outside the home • almost all artisans were men, and earned an income from the products they made and sold • gradually guilds restricted the wife and widows role to pursue their husbands role, then the status was way off limits for women Cottage industry • manufactured some good at home through a system of COTTAGE INDUSTRY • cottage workers might spin wool, make lace and were paid a PIECE RATE (PAID ON PIECE WORK BASIS, BY THE AMOUNT OF WORK COMPLETED) • this work was a households only cash income • women laboured their every minute of household for the cottage industry Emergence of the labour force: LABOUR FORCE (comprised of people who work for pay or actively seeking paid work) • created wage workers and UNEMPLOYED PERSONS who sought jobs, and NON EMPLOYED • unpaid workers who cooked and cleaned or family members were usually women, men were more likely to be in the labour force Industrialization and the sexual division of labor: industrialism  men to paid work, women to unpaid work of the household Sexual Division of Paid and Unpaid work • 19th century, labor force increasingly became men • cottage industries gave way to small textile factories but many employers continued to hire women and children because they worked for cheaper wage and were more available to hire than men • as employment became urbanized, LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION fell and the labor force became MASCULINIZED • during this time the number of people looking for jobs, was greater than the number of jobs there were • the result was hordes of UNEMPLOYED people desperate for work • employers took advantage of the situation by cutting pay • early unions viewed women as a threat to mens work, so they were determined to drive them out of all factory jobs • unions found allies in middle class reformers who sought laws to protect children and women from poor working conditions • this pressure led to the creation of PROTECTIVE LABOR LAWS which banned exploitative employment practices • it prohibited women and children from working more than a certain number of hour, and lifting a certain weight, working in the night time and having certain jobs • it mainly denied women from high paying jobs • gendered assumptions gave women but not men protection from hazardous work and gave men but not women the right to weigh the risk against the rewards in deciding how to earn a living • protective labour laws continued to the masculinisation of the labor force and reinforced the assumption that it was men's responsibility to support their families • need drove many women to work for pay and employers sought women for low paying factory jobs The ideology of separate spheres • it was married, not single women who were least liking to be employed • IDEOLOGY OF SEPARATE SPHERES: this ideology called for the separation of family life from paid work • it held that a woman's proper place was in a home and not in the workplace and its corollary was that a mans natural sphere was not in the home, instead it was in the world of commerce • it encouraged men to work away from home, and women to confine productive activities to the household • reinforcing these beliefs were stereotypes of men as strong aggressive and competitive, women as frail, and nurturing • respectable women had two responsibilities: creating a haven to which their husbands world retreat from the world of work and demonstrating through their own non employment their husbands ability to support their families • wives employment brought shame to the husband and themselves • masculinity was measured by the size of a man's paycheck • the ideology assigned men the obligation to support their families • social values that encouraged employers to ban women from many jobs legitimized sex discrimination • employer could justify low pay for women because men presumably supported them, and women's economic dependence on men solidified mens authority in the family The sexual division of labour among the poor and working class • many working class women sought ways to earn money at home, by doing piece work such as laundry, sewing and boarders • it usually meant lower pay, and longer hours working away from the home • minority women of all ages usually worked • employers in the market for cheap labor did not care if women were married • married immigrant women and former slaves were likely to be employed in sweatshops, factories, offices and schools, and other homes • these assumptions from the sexual division of labor freed men from household responsibilities and assigned them to 12 to 14 hour work days The convergence in women's and mens labor force participation • the legacy that married women shouldn’t work carried onto modern times • even though now society expects married women to work, domestic work is still defined as women's sphere • gap between mens and women's labor force participation rate has narrowed Summary • the shift of production from home during industrialization in western societies transformed men into wage laborers who left home each day for jobs in factories, shops and offices • it expanded mens economic role in their families • decline of domestic production robbed women of the role of breadwinning • in the wake of industrialization women found themselves with limited options • because of social norms and job discrimination curtailed their participation in the labor force Informal Sector • INFORMAL SECTOR: sector is made up of mall enterprises, the workers that these enterprises employ regularly and casual workers with no fixed employment  found in developing world Globalization • Past two decades, there has been an increase in GLOBALIZATION the process by which owners of capital rapidly move money, goods, and jobs around the world in response to changing economic conditions Summary: • Industrialization concentrated men in paid work away from the home, and women in unpaid domestic work in the home • in the western world, the division of labor was most extreme during the 19th century Chapter 3: An overview of sex inequality at  work  Sex inequality in the contemporary American workplace • the workplace is often a context for sexual inequality in our society • first, employers concentrate men and women in different workplaces and assign different duties to them • second, because jobs are primary way that most adults acquire income, sex differentiation in jobs lead to unequal earnings, authority, and social status for women and men • third, interaction at work may subject women to subtle and not so subtle expressions of inequality, from paternalism to sexual harassment, and invisibility • sex inequality at work takes form in three primary ways: Sex Segregation (1) • another term for this sexual division of labor is SEX SEGREGATION, the concentration of men and women in different kinds of work • Americas work place tends to be sex segregated • the modal pattern is for men to work with men and women to work with women • work places are also segregated by race, ethnicity and age Sex Differences in promotions and authority (2) • across the board, men do not have a promotion advantage over women • there are soups and work contexts in which each sex has an advantage, however .. • men still dominate the top levels in organizations that employ them and monopolize the highest ranks in most occupations and professions • many women who achieve jobs in midlevel ranks, find top level positions beyond their reach • GLASS CEILING: an invisible glass ceiling prevents some workers from advancing • both sexes are distributed across the range of good and bad jobs • but when you look at the tails of the occupational distribution, you will find men in more good jobs, and women in bad ones • women supervise fewer subordinates than men, and less likely to control financial resources Sex differences in earning (3) • men outlearn women • men are more likely to have health insurance and other benefits than women • in elderly 13 percent of women were in poverty compared to 7 percent of men Reasons social scientists offer for these types of sex inequality: Explanations for sex inequality in the work place • sex
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