Textbook Notes (363,569)
Canada (158,433)
Sociology (1,481)
SOC366H1 (16)
Chapter 2

chapter 2.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Michael Reid

Work and Gender soc366 Jan 18,2012 chapter 2  Preindustrial agriculture, women’s and men’s tasks overlapped although the sexual division of labor defined cooking, cleaning and spinning as women’s work. The jobs that women and men usually did were seen as equally valuable, preindustrial agriculture was hardly a paradise of sex equality  Men’s and women’s manufacturing work was organized under different systems of production, with men in guilds and women in workshops  Although the sexes had similar levels of skills, men in manufacturing substantially outlearned women and enjoyed more autonomy  Artisans: craft workers, produced a variety of products from scratch.  Guilds: associations of tradespeople or craft workers organized to protect their members interests  The guilds, the precursors of modern unions controlled the apprenticeship systems through which artisans learned their craft  Cottage industry: spin wool, make lace, weave cloth or attach shirt collars for which they were paid on a piecework basis  Piece rate: by the amount of work completed  Earnings often the household’s only cash income  As cottage workers, women and children participated in the earliest labor force  Industrial revolution: lasted over 200 years in the western world,  Labor force: comprised of people who work for pay or actively seek paid work  Creation of the labor force split working people into 3 groups: 1. Wage workers 2. Unemployed person who sought paid jobs 3. Nonemployed  Distinction between paid work in the labor market and unpaid domestic work by the ‘nonemployed’ has had important consequences for gender inequality  Men have been more likely than women to belong to the labor force, and women have been more likely than men to be unpaid workers  Labor force participation fell, and the labor force became masculinized  Unemployed people desperate for work  Employers took advantage of the situation by cutting pay  Protective labor laws prohibited the employment of children and women for more than a specific number of hours a day, from lifting more than specified weights, from working at night, and from holding certain jobs  Ideology of separate spheres: held that a woman’s proper place was in the home and not in the workplace  Encouraged men to work away from home and women to confine productive activities to the household  Wives’ employment brought shame not only on their husbands but also on themselves  Notions of women’s frailty and their role as ornaments reinforced the sexual division of labor  Middle-class men, ideology demanded the dogged pursuit of economic success  Just as woman’s respectability rested on performing domestic roles and not doing paid work, a man’s rested on how well he performed his market roles: masculinity was measure the size of a man’s paycheck  Ideology of separate spheres restricted both women and men  Ideology of separate spheres has contributed to the gendering of modern work in several ways:  1. Assigned men the obligation to support their families 2. Social values that encouraged employers to ban women from many jobs legitimized sex discrimination 3. Employers could justify low pay for women because men presumably supported them Work and Gender soc366 Jan 18,2012 chapter 2  ideology of separate spheres was beyond the reach of many married women, particularly poor and working class women who were often immigrants or minorities  reserving paid jobs for men, the ideology of separate spheres especially hurt working-class wives, whose families could not get by on one worker’s paycheck  many working-class women sought ways to earn money at home, such as doing piecework or taking in laundry. Alternatives usually meant lower pay and longer hours than working away from the home  sexual division of labor that assigned men to the labor force and women to the home enc
More Less

Related notes for SOC366H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.