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SOC366H1 (16)
Chapter 3

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC366H1
Professor
Michael Reid
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 3  Workplace is often a context for sex inequality in our society  Employers concentrate women and men in different workplaces and assign different duties to them, the workplace maintains sex differentiation  Jobs are the primary way that most adults acquire income and social standing, sex differentiation in jobs leads to unequal earnings, authority and social status for women and men  Interaction at work may subject women to subtle inequality  Sex segregation: sexual division of labor, concentration of men and women in different kinds of work  Modal pattern is for men to work with other men and for women to work with other women  Unusual worker who has coworker of the other sex who does the same job, for the same employer, in the same location and on the same shift  Work places also are segregated by race, ethnicity and age  Each sex has an advantage, men still dominate the top levels in the organizations that employ them and monopolize the highest ranks in most occupations and professions  Glass ceiling: an invisible ceiling prevents some workers from advancing  both sexes are distributed across the range of good and bad jobs  women supervise fewer subordinates than men and are less likely to control financial resources  every dollar paid to a woman who worked full time, year round, a man earned $1.39  consequences of these disparities in earnings and benefits follow workers into old age, among retired persons, women have lower incomes and higher rates of poverty than men  cultural values can also change, either in response to outside influences or in response to pressure from within a society  transformations brought about by the ‘green revolution’ displaced women’s labor because the large scale mechanized agriculture it inspired falls in men’s traditional realm  gender ideology: set of widely shared assumptions about the way the sexes are and what the relations between them are and ought to be. Content of the gender ideology shapes both norms about how people are expected to behave and sex stereotypes  women and men innately differ in fundamental ways and hence are naturally suited for different roles in life  one way to produce difference is by separating the sexes  sexual division of labor that assigned men to paid jobs and women to domestic work in their own homes  assumption supports gender inequality at work in several ways  employed women are temporary workers who will quit when they need to accommodate women’s needs as primary family caregivers  employed women are not committed to their careers  assumptions: 1. Men are the real breadwinners 2. Women are real domestic workers, men don’t need to know how to do housework 3. Real workers, men but not women invest in acquiring skills  men are naturally superior to women, assumption legitimates sex inequality across all spheres of activity  paternalism: notion that women like children are inferior creatures whom men must take care of  sex stereotypes: socially shared beliefs that link various traits, attributes, and skills with one sex or the other are part of gender ideology. Common sex stereotypes assume that men are Chapter 3 naturally more rational, aggressive and stronger and that women are more emotional, passive and nurturant  Often operate in tandem with race ste
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