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Chapter 5

P&R chap 5.docx

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Michael Reid

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Chapter 5  Employers use promotions to retain valued workers, to fill higher level positions with workers familiar with the company, and to give workers an incentive to work harder  GSS and NLSY: indicates a small to moderate gender gap in promotions  Data indicates that men had a very slight edge over women. NLSY data concern only recent promotions of workers in midcareer and do not pick up sex differences during the early years of a career when most promotions occur  Men promoted at faster rate during those years, which sex gap disappears  Now promotion gap has narrowed  Federal government: women now have been promoted at a higher rate than men. Yet these promotions were in the low and midlevel ranks  Size of sex differences in promotion rates depends on characteristics of workers – 1. education  Being married increases chances of a man being promoted but has opposite effect for women  Sex gap in promotions is greater among married than single workers and among parents of preschoolers compared to others  Promotion opportunities vary by 2. occupation.  Common job for men is truck driver and women is secretary. Workers hold jobs with no promotion possibilities  For many workers, problem is not the glass ceiling blocking them from top jobs, but the sticky floor that traps them in low mobility jobs  Men more likely than women to be promoted to partnership than women  Men in traditionally female jobs do not confront blocked opportunities because of their sex  More women in an occupation, greater men’s (particularly white men) chances of moving into supervisory positions  Men can also face promotion problems. May regard them to unwilling to pursue advancement opportunities because of family reasons as lacking career commitment  Men who do not seek advancement, may suffer professionally because they violate gender stereotypes of men as oriented to advancement  Authority: means having legitimate power to mobilize people, to get their cooperation and to secure the resources to do the job  Women are less likely than men to occupy the high level positions that offer opportunities to exert power- blocked mobility to influential jobs – glass ceiling  When women hold position, they confer authority, less power than men regardless their positions  Men are greatly overrepresented among elite group of top job holders in organizations  Higher level of authority in an organization, less likely women are to be represented  In industries that employ mostly women, they are more likely to be found in top-level occupations st  21 cent. white women almost as likely as white men to be managers  sex gap largest among whites, smallest among Hispanics and blacks  women with levels of education and experience equivalent to those of men of their same race and ethnicity were in lower ranked jobs  American women doing well. Representation in top jobs worldwide. Under 5 %  1. Women less authority than men because they are less likely to be in managerial positions  Law: in the beginning of 21 cent.women far more likely to be law firm associates than law firm partners and it is partners who run the show  Stained glass ceiling:
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