Required Readings October 29 - 31.docx

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St. Michael's College Courses
Carly Manion

The Catholic Church by Stewart (p. 217 - 41) 1. What were some of the abuses and power struggles in the Catholic Church in the 15th and 16th centuries?  16CE: nationalization  15CE: Bablyonian Captivity of the papacy, Great Schism (three popes at the same time) o Philip taxed clergy members against Boniface and made Unum Sanctum o French pope, cardinals moved into French land and gave king power (Bablyonian Captivity of the papacy) o Great Schism: Two popes with secular rulers choosing one o Simony (selling church office) and nepotism (important favors to family) by Alexander Vl 2. On what basis did Martin Luther feel called to condemn Church theology and practice in his time? Who were some of the other Protestant reformers and churches who followed his lead?  Justification by faith: God treat those with faith as with righteous while the churched moved away from that o Ppl. making prayers and pilgrimages rather than depending on God's mercy o Buying their way out of sin and Church using it (protested against St. Peter's project)  Protestant Followers o John Calvin and followers: Reformation in Geneva, God chosen two types of ppl. (Church of Scotland) o Anabaptists: only adult baptism valid, individ. interpretation of scriptures (Amish/mennonites) o Church of English: Henry divorced wife = make new church focused on sacraments (Methodist) o Puritans: secular society ruled by religious leaders (United Church of christ  Changes: pol't ideas, new regard for women, higher view of work, use of vernacular (work in languages of ppl.) 3. Who were some of the other Catholic reformers in the sixteenth century, and how did their ideas contribute to the calling of the Council of Trent?  Authority of scripture and tradition o Protestants: scriptures are law while Catholics: traditions (early Christian writings/statements from Church council) are just as divine o Interpretation: Catholics (bishops) and protestant (everyone)  Doctrines and Sacraments o Protestant: only eucharist and baptism are sacraments; eucharist not transubstantion but only the remembrance, humans are innately sinful and corrected through faith o Catholics: all 7 sacraments good; eucharist is transubstantion  Reforms o Catholics: installment of seminaries for Church thus preventing simony and nepotism and use of proper reverence o Protestant: wanted correct theology while Catholics thought theology was perfect  Oppression, intimidation, and reformation o Use of index of prohibition books and the inquisition o Prohibition books: what was to be read and not read (Protestant disagreed - With Church Fathers outlawing without permanent permission from Bishop) 4. What, according to Stewart, were some of the significant accomplishments of the Council,
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