Chapter One.docx

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St. Michael's College Courses
Carly Manion

Chapter One: Studying Child and Adolescent Development (Pages 19 - 45) Key Issues surrounding theories of development (page 21) 1. Nature versus nurture 2. Stability versus plasticity 3. Continuity versus discontinuity 4. Passive versus active child 5. End point versus no endpoint Different Theories of Child Development (Page 22 - 1. Biological Theories - evn't plays little role in influencing education (ex. needs more time to age if can't perform)  Genotype and evn't are strongly related, with emphasis on behavioral genetics 2. Psychoanalytic Theories - development in self and personality  Freud and Erikson: development is discon't @ discrete stages (qualitative changes in sense of self)  Erikson: society values influence development over time  Freud: the first 5 years are important (critical period) for personality develop. 3. Behavioral Theories - changes in mood influenced by biology (con't process and passive role w. no critical point))  Classical conditioning - stimuli + action  Operant conditioning - positive re-enforcement (observation and change) 4. Cognitive Theories - the way children construct understanding of evn't (interactonal)  Cognitive Developmental Theory - qualitative change pass in the same order (not same age); universal pttn.  Information Processing Theory - examines the mental tasks (entered, processed and stored) o Both quantitative and qualitative Short-term Perceptions Sensory Encode Long-Term Input or working Memory memory memory Retrieve  Social Learning Theories - # of cognitive factors affect learning, change with age due to social evn't o Reciprocal determini
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