Chapter Two.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Carly Manion

Chapter Two: Physical Development Prenatal Development (page 51 - 63) Genes and Chromosomes  Chromosomes are part of your DNA which is expressed from multiple genes working together called polygenetic traits  Polygenetic traits can be categorized as sex-linked characteristics, recessive genes, or dominant genes  In some cases identical twins called monozygotic twins or fraternal dizygotic twins are born Genetic and Chromosomal Abnormalities  Each person = 20 diseased genes  Fragile x-syndrome: leading causes mental retardation, more common in males  Reaction range: person's unique, genetically determined response to evn't influences (same genotype different phenotype) Stages of Prenatal Development  Three major stages: Germinal period, embryonic period, fetal period o Germinal period: 1-2 weeks of fetal develop. mitosis o Embryonic period: 2- 8 weeks basic structures developed  Three cell layers: ectoderm (outer for nervous system and skin), mesoderm (skeleton and muscle), endoderm (digestive and vital organs)  3 - 4 weeks = heart forms  6 - 8 weeks sex differentiation occurs o Fetal period: 8 weeks to birth Environmental Effects on Prenatal Development  Teratogen: any abnormalities of the fetus (ex. thalidomide for nausea and sleepiness caused deform arms) High Risk Infants  38 - 42 weeks and weigh 5 - 10 pounds @ least risk  Low Birth Weight: most die b4 one year, caused from placenta/cervix problems, toxemia (water retention and high blood pressure, urine in blood = premature death)  Poor Prenatal Care: 1/6 mothers did not get prenatal care in 1st trimester Brain Development (page 64 - 72) Changes in the Brain  Neurons: contain tight gaps called synapses which can be pruned or loss, releasing neurotransmitters o Myelintated: neurons and dendrites coated with myelin causing pluses travel faster Brain Development and Experience  Experience expectant: certain evn't stimulation expected; babies need stimulus from the evn't or the neron dies  Experience adaptive: children's brain adapt to deprive evn't *Both controlled by the critical point and whether or not the brain is plastic, ability of the brain to change  Experience-dependent: unique to individual formation of new synapses on new life experiences Brain Organization and Specialization  Brain Laterlization: specialization of the two hemisphere Perceptual Development (pages 72 - 75) Visual Perception  Habituation - infants rather look at complex images and may slow their nervous system when exposed which is called orienting response therefore habituation decrease after stimulus in repeat Auditory Perception  Young children prefer the noises they hear as a kid Taste, Smell and Touch  Many prefer sweet tastes  Intermodal perception - stimulus are be perceived all at the same time Characteristics of Children with Special Needs (pages 75 - 90) Learning disability is not...visual, hearing or motor handicaps; mental retardation, emotional disturbance, evn't, cultural or economics disadvantages Causes of Learning Disabilities  Genetic primarily prenatal: maternal consumption, mild head injuries, premature birth  Home, child-reading  Recognized at pre-school level: neuromuscular low, speech delay, dysfluency, poor phonology Child with learning disabilities in the school years  Grades do not dictate the severity of learning disability (IQ tested average but below in school)  Spoke language: delay, disorders, can't listen or hear  Written language: hard with reading, writing, spelling  Arithmetic: can't perform basic concepts  Reasoning: difficulty organizing thoughts and can't not perceive emotions  External locus of control: specific learning disability but exceed in school/social Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  Expected versus excessive levels of attn. impulse control (placement/help made on individualized level) Onset of ADHD 1. Family history of ADHD 2. Maternal smoking/drinking 3. Single parenthood 4. Low parental education level 5. Poor infant health/development delay 6. Early emergence of high activity and demanding 7. Critical/directive maternal beh
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