BIAGI Chapter 4.docx

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St. Michael's College Courses
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Steve Hoselton

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BIAGI Chapter 4 – Magazines: Targeting the Audience Sports Illustrated is one of earliest magazines to anticipate today’s trend in magazines targeted to specific audience. These magazines cater articles and advertisings that reflect what each audience wants. Thus advertisers like that the readers are good targets for their products. Magazines give readers info they can’t get anywhere else! Magazines Reflect Trends and Culture  Glamour: top 10 women’s magazines, reaching <2 million readers every month  Parenting: most successful family magazine  Maxim: aimed at young adult males, with 2.5 readers (published by same company that produces Rolling Stone). Maxim also launched Radio through Sirius XM Radio.  Magazines reflect the surrounding culture and the characteristics of the society. As reader’s needs and lifestyles change, so do magazines. Colonial Magazines Compete with Newspapers  First newspaper was in 1741 (50yrs after first newspaper) in America by Benjamin Franklin & Andrew Bradford.  While newspapers cover daily crisis, magazines reach beyond parochial concerns of small communities to carry their cultural, political, and social ideas to help foster a national identity.  The first magazines did not last long because they didn’t have advertisements, making them expensive.  Early magazines primarily provided a means for political expression. Magazines Travel Beyond Local Boundaries  In 1800s, newspapers were only circulating within each city. Magazines became the only national medium to travel beyond local areas. Subscribers sought them for news, culture, and entertainment.  First magazine to reach large public: The Saturday Evening Post in 1821. It was a nickel, and ¼ pages were ads. Publishers Locate New Readers  Magazines expanded audience in 1800s: women’s issues, social crusades, literature and the arits, and politics. Women’s Issues  Central figure in magazine history: Sarah Josepha Hale. Louis A. Godey hired Hale to capitalize on female audience. Hale was sought for morals, manners, literature, fashion, diet, and taste  She supported higher education and property rights for women. Social Crusades  Magazines were important instrumental for social change.  In Ladies’ Home Journal, it dealt issues on dangerous medicines. It was first magazine to refuse patent med ads. Published by Cyrus Curtis, it offered columns of women’s issues, popular fiction, and sheet music.  After finding out many patent meds contain 40% alcohol, Edward Bok also began crusade against patent meds. He revealed that meds sold to sooth noisy babies contained morphine.  Many magazines joined the fight against dangerous ads.  From Bok’s investigations, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Fostering the Arts  In mid-1800s, literary audiences were sought by promoting nation’s writers. This began the Harper’s and The Atlantic.  Even today they publish literary criticism and promote political debate. Political Commentary  Bc magazines had more time and space to reflect country’s problems, political magazines had forum for public arguments by scholars and critical observers. Ex) The Nation, The New Republic and The Crisis.  The Nation: oldest and the most continuous in US = offers critical literary essays and arguments.  The New Public: criticizing political leaders  The Crisis: by Du Bois, attacked discrimination against African American soldiers during WWI, exposed Ku Klux Klan activities, and argued for voting and housing Rights. Postal Act Helps Magazines Grow  Postal Act of 1879 encouraged growth of magazines. Before the Act, magazines paid postage unlike newspapers, but after, they were granted second-class mailing privileges and cheap mailing rate. (Today magazines travel on a postage rate)  This Act inc-ed number of monthly magazines 10 times.  But bc they travel through mail, they were vulnerable to censorship. McClure’s Launches Investigative Journalism  Muckrakers, the investigative magazine journalists who targeted abuses by government and big business, began to reach audience.  Samuel S. McClure, was editor important to the Progressive era in American politics, closing the relationship btw gov and big business. He priced magazines 15cents (while others 25, 35) to reach to audience ad hired Steffens and Tarbell to investigate wrongdoing.  Muckrakers targeted big businesses and corrupt gov.  Muckrakers are cited as America’s original investigative journalists.  IMPACT PEOPLE: Muckraker Ida Tarbell Targets John D. Rockefeller o Targeted oil magnate John D. Rockefeller, creating 19 part series about the company. The New Yorker and Time Succeed Differently  Two basic magazine types are: 1. Publishers seeking definable, targeted loyal audience 2. Publishers seeking broad, general readership  The New Yorker and Time best represent the two types. Harold Ross and The New Yorker  Harold Ross gathered the wittiest group of writers, forming the Algonquin Round Table.  Ross published great commentary, fiction, and humor, with cartoons.  Ross sought sophisticated, wealthy audience  The New Yorker is the primary showcase for contemporary American writers and artists. Henry Luce’s Empire: Time  Luce sought largest possible readership  It was for people willing to spend a half-hour to avoid being entirely uninformed.  He also launched: Sports Illustrated, Fortune, Life, Money, and People Weekly  Time is just a small part of Time Warner, which has TV stations, movie studios, book publishers, Home Box Office, CNN, and America Online!  Luce’s magazine industry was copied by Ebony magazine, making another magazine Jet. Specialized Magazines Take Over  When TV came in 1950s, it collapsed the General interest magazines bc they used it in TV.  Targeted magazines segmented the market, each magazine attracting fewer readers.  Magazines can target audience more effectively than any other medium. Magazines Divide into Three Types  Consumer Magazines: ex) Time, Glamour, Parenting, Maxim. o All magazines that are sold by subscription or at newsstands, supermarkets, and bookstores. o They make most money bc they have most readers and have most advertising  Trade, Technical a
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