BIAGI Chapter 5.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Steve Hoselton

BIAGI Chapter 5 - Recordings: Demanding Choices “Popular Music is like a Unicorn”  Of all media industries, recording industry is most vulnerable to piracy, and suffered most by Internet. Edison Introduces His Amazing Talking Machine  1877 THOMAS EDISON  Thomas Edison: invented Phonograph: a sound writer in 1877  Then RCA Victor was formed. As horns were attached to amplify sound, the machine became a large furniture  End of WWII: 78 rpm (revolutions per minute) records were standard  Each record had one song recorded in each side Peter Goldmark Perfects Long-Playing Records  1947: Goldmark created LP: long-playing record – could play for 23 minutes & longer than 78rpm William S. Paley Battles David Sarnoff for Record Format  William Paley: owned CBC radio, and encouraged Sarnoff to make LP’s, but Sarnoff instead made 7-inch 45rpm, which were perfect size for jukeboxes. But with slow sales, Sarnoff was convinced to make LP’s. CBC agreed to use 45rpms for popular songs.  Later all three speeds: 33-1/3, 45rpm, and 78rpm were used Hi-Fi and Stereo Rock In  Popular music in 1950s: Rock ‘n’ Roll (Elvis Presley)  High Fidelity came first. Then, High quality tape recorders and plastic tape  this development allowed recordings to be edited and refined. Then, Stereo arrived in 1956  Motown, African American blues, and rock ‘n’ roll artists began  Multiplex radio broadcasts had monoaural & stereo on same station  Development of condenser microphones  1960s: miniaturation of tape players  1970s: cassette tapes (more adaptable, less expensive)  1979: Sony Walkman  Compact Discs (CD): music is transformed into digital code on 4.7-inch plastic and aluminum disc. They last longer than tapes  2000: CD-RW drives (Re-writable): burning data on blank CDs. It can record more than once.  Music videos, music channels, Apple iPod, iTunes, etc. development  2003: iTunes charging 99 cents per song  2007: iPhone Recording Industry at Work  Recording company’s 5 responsibilities: (1) Artists & Repertoire: finding new artists and new songs (2) Operations: technical aspect of recording (3) Marketing & Promotion: best way to sell recording. o Often use promoters to play on radio  led to abuses such as Payola (4) Distribution: gets recording into stores o Independents: contract separately with diff companies to deliver recordings o Branches: big studios handling distributions (5) Administration: handles money; Accounting tracks sales and royalties; Legal departments on contracts  Before 1956, songs had to be recorded at one take – but today, all parts can be recorded individually  Producers: coordinate the artist with music, arrangements, and engineers.  Marketing and Promotion is particularly important. Live concert is best promoting strategy Concerts Bring in Important Revenue  Bands use latest tech to create spectacular live concerts and phantasmagoric festival experiences that are more like computer-controlled theme parks than like the rick festivals of yesteryear Impact Culture: 33% ppl like Rock Music Four Major Companies Dominate  4 companies dominate global music business: EMI, SONG/BMG, UNIVERSAL, WARNERS  LA, New York, Nashville  Recording industries pre
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