Biagi Chapter 7-14.docx

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St. Michael's College Courses
Steve Hoselton

Chapter 7 Movies: Picturing the Future Movie Mirror Culture - Movies political massage/ reflect changing social values/ just entertainment - Before television: movies were the nations primary form of visual entertainment Inventors Capture Motion on Film - Motion camera and projector were two of the Industrials Revolutions new gadgets - 6 people who got involeved into the process of invention - Etienne Jules Mareycharted a horses movements on graphs and published the information in a book, Animal Mechanism - - Perfected a photographic gun camera that could take 12 photographs on one plate1 motion picture camera - Eadweard Muybridgebuilt a special track in Palo Alto, California, with 12 cameras precisely placed to take pictures of a horse as it moved around the track - Thomas Edison - William K.L. Dickoninvented kinetoscope - Auguste & Louis Lumiere-- both developed an improved camera and a projector that could show film on a large screen in France Edison Launches American Movies - Then, Edison organized the 1 American motion picture premiere with an improved camera developed by independent inventor Thomas Armat nickelodeons - Since Biograph manufactured a better motion picture camera, Edison agreed to sign agreement with Biograph forming the Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) Filmmakers Turn Novelty into Art Sound was not introduced to movie until the 1920s 2 innovative filmmakers are credited with turning the novelty of movies into art: - Georges Melies - Edwin S. Porterimportant filmmaker - Produced the Great Train Robbery Studio System and Independent Moviemakers Flourish - Florence Lawrence: first movie star - Studio system: a studio hired a stable stars and production people who were paid a regular salary - People signed contracts with that studio and couldnt work other studio without their employers permission - Star system: Promoted popular movie personalities to lure audiences, was nurtured by the independents - This helped broaden the movies appeal beyond the working class - Movie Become Big Business 5 important events in the 1920s transformed the movie industry: - The move to California - The adoption of block booking - The formation of United Artists - The industrys efforts at self-regulation - The introduction of sound - Studios Move to Hollywood - Theater Capital: New York - Soon it moved to Hollywood Distributors Insist on Block Booking - Production companies started built theaters to exhibit their own pictures - Block Booking: connection between production, distribution and exhibition grew - Sign up one of its licensed theaters for as many as 104 pictures United Artists Champions the Independents - 1919, William S. Hart formed a company with others: United Artists (UA) - Eliminated block booking and became a distributor for independently produced pictures - Proving that its possible to distribute films without using major studio Moviemakers use self-regulation to respond to Scandals - 2 crises in 1920s which led them to regulate themselves - Scandals involving movie stars and - Criticism that movie content was growing too provocative - Will HaysPresident of Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) - Wrote a code of conduct to govern industry (144) New Technology Brings the Talkies - Era of silent Era of talkies Big Five Studios Dominate in1930s - Warner Bros - Metro-Goldwyn- Mayer - Paramount - RKO - 20 Century Fox Big Five vertically integrated Labor Unions Organize Movie Workers - Screen Writers Guild was certified Screen Director Guild - Unionization limited the studios power over the people who worked for them Movies Glitter During the Golden Age - MGMthe most successful studio in Hollywood which attracted the best writers, directors and actors Congress and the Courts Change Hollywood - 2 events helped reverse the prosperous movie - Hearings of the House Un-American Activities committee - Blacklisted: Studio owners refusal to hire someone who was suspected of taking part in subversive activities - The 1948 antitrust decision of U.S. Supreme Court in United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., et al - Agreement with government - Limit block booking to five films - Stop blind booking: the practice of renting films to exhibitors without letting them see the films first - Stop requiring theaters to rent short films as a condition of acquitting features - Stop buying theaters - As a result, Supreme Court 5 major firms had given up ownership or control of all their theaters - Production and exhibition were now split - End of the studio system Movies Lose Their Audience to Television - Movie industry has tried several methods to counteract this downward trend - Wide screen and 3-D Movies - Changes in Censorship - Spectaculars, like the Sound of Music & Godfather - Movie Ratings - Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA): protects business interests of movie companies by lobbying Congress about issues that are important to the movie business - Began rating system modeled on Great Britains Movies and Money Today - Each major studios makes fewer than 20 movies a year - DreamWorks SKG (1994): Steven Spielberg, Jeffery Katzenberg and David Geffen first major independent movie studio - Today, only Movie industry is so fragmented writers and producers, investors, distributors, and exhibitors are separate Losing Money: Ticket Sales Drop - 1946 movie best year after that it dropped - Movie finance is an important part of the movie business today because movies are part of publicly owned corporations where stockholder lyalty comes first - Half the movies produced every year are made for television and are underwritten by the TV networks - Video sales bring reliable revenues Ancillary Rights Fund Projects - Ancillary Rights: Marketing opportunities related to a movie, in addition to direct income from the movie itself Digital Technology Drives the Business - Production smaller, portable cameras, holograph, digitize color, using computer - Distribution plans movies by satellite-to satellite dishes on top of each theater and directly to consumers homes - Exhibition Began to offer motion simulation, controlled seats moved in conjunction with a ridefilm to give feeling of space travel or other adventures International Markets Bring Concentrated Power Two major changes - Global ownership & global marketing - Merging of the movie industry with the television Chapter 8 Television: Changing Channels - Programs Americans watch today are delivered by antennas, cables and satellites, but they all appear on the same television screen TV Delivers an Audience to Advertisers - Commercial television was created to deliver audiences to advertisers - Commercial television exists primarily as an advertising medium - Television deliver a larger audience faster than other mass media, television can charge the highest rates of any medium for its advertisingwhich makes TV station rich investments Visual Radio Becomes Television - TV first appeared 1907 - Experiments in image transmission visual wireless, visual radio and electric vision - Nipkow disk: first major technological discovery - Guglilmo Marconieliminated souds dependence on wires and put sound on airwaves - Lee de Forestcontributed the Audion tube, which amplified radio waves so that people could hear the sound clearly - Vladimir Zworykindeveloped an all-electronic system to transform a visual image into an electric signal that traveled through the air - Network: a collection of radio or television stations that offers programs, usually simultaneously, throughout the country, during designated program times - David Sarnoff and William Payley controlled the network game Television Outspaces Radio - Black- and- White television replaced radio so quickly - David Sarnoff and William Payley used their profits from radio to develop television, foreseeing that television eventually would expand their audience and income News with Pictures
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