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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL AND TEXTUAL STUDIES REVIEW BAR = handle to press in a hand-press machine to begin printing BED = the part of the press on which type is placed for printing BIBLIOGRAPHY = the study of books, including their texts, materials, history, production and distribution; also an account, list or description of books or works BINDER’S TICKET = a stamped or printed identification of a book’s binder, generally appearing, if used, on a paste down endpaper BINDING = the process or product of folding, gathering, and fastening together the printed sheets of a book and enclosing them in covers BINDNG CLOTH = cloth used in binding, especially since the 1820s, when publishers began issuing books in prefabricated casings rather than leaving binding to the bookseller or purchaser. The cloth may be embossed with a variety of patterns, or grains, that in descriptive bibliography may be designated diaper, rib, ripple, bead, sand, pansy, and breaded-line cloth BLACK LETTER TYPE = a group of angular, scriptlike typefaces represented by textura, rotunda and bastarda and no longer commonly used; gothic type is sometimes used as a synonym but confusingly also refers to recent sans-serif typefaces BOARDS = the wood, cardboard, or other material used as stiff covers to stiffen the covers of a binding BOOK PLATE = a slip, often decorated, pasted to an endpaper to show ownership of a book CASE = a compartmented tray in which type is kept for composition; a type case; also a cover or binding used to refer to bindings made up separately and subsequently affixed to books CASTING OFF = estimating the space, including number of pages, to be occupied by copy when it has been set into type CATCHWORD = the first word of a page, appearing also at the foot of the preceding page as a guide to assembling the pages in correct order; catchwords were in common use in English printed words from the mid-16 century until the th late 18 century CHAIN LINES = watermarks of broad-spaced lines crossed by lines that are close together (wire lines) CHASE = a metal frame in which pages of type are arranged and locked up for printing or for making plates CODEX = a book, in particular a manuscript book as opposed to a papyrus roll; the plural is codices COMMON PRESS = the wood hand-press in use throughout the hand-press period (1450-1800); consisting of a wood frame in which a screw-driven platen impressed the paper onto an inked forme of type  COMPOSING STICK = a handheld tray into which the compositor places the types from his cases according to his copy; in early printing, the length of the stick was fixed so a compositor would have to have several of various standard lengths; later they had an adjustable end that allowed one stick to serve for setting lines of varying lengths COMPOSITION = the process of setting type, spaces, rules, headings and the like COMPOSITOR = a person who sets type DECKLE EDGE = the untrimmed, uneven edge of a sheet of paper as it comes from the mold in papermaking by hand or from the web in papermaking by machine; the deckle is the frame around the mold used in making paper by hand and it is a rubber dam or strap in papermaking machines DISTRIBUTION = the process of removing pieces of type from the chase and returning them to the type case EDITION BINDING = the binding up of books before the publisher supplies them to booksellers; the practice became common in the early 19 century FORMAT = the design and layout of a book; the scheme by which type pages have been arranged / imposed within a frame so that when a printed sheet is folded, it produces a particular number and sequence of leaves such as a duodecimo, folio, quarto, octavo, and sixteenmo; it is also a designation of book size since the size depends on the number of times a sheet is folded FORME = the assemblage or imposition of type pages for the printing of one side of a sheet; the outer forme includes the two pages that will come first and last when the sheet is printed and folded correctly; the inner forme is the opposite side FOUL CASE = a compositor’s case in which some pieces of type have been distributed into the wrong compartments and wait for the opportunity to create a typographic error FRISKET = a frame covered with parchment or paper in which holes have been cut to expose the areas to be printed and to mask the areas of the chase that are not to be printed FURNITURE = in printing, wood or metal spacing material placed around type pages within a chase GILT OR GILDED = of a book, having gold leaf applied to its edges; sometimes used to refer to various kinds of stamping on bindings GATHERING = a book section consisting of a folded sheet, folded portions of a sheet, or quired sheets HAND-PRESS PERIOD = in historical bibliography, the period 1500-1800, during which printing became well established although the technology remained relatively stable, employing the common hand-press and moveable type ILLUMINATION = the decoration by hand of a manuscript or book by adding illustrations, initials and ornaments in gold or silver or more generally, in any colours IMPOSITION = the arrangement of pages in the chase to print one forme so that when the sheets are properly folded, the pages run in the correct order INCUNABLE OR INCUNABULUM = a book printed from movable type during the infancy of printing, especially before 1501; plural is incunables or incunabula INSCRIPTION = in bibliography, a name and sometimes a note and date written in a book (often on an endpaper or title page) by the author, or person giving it as a gift LEADING = the spacing between lines of type, created by inserting thin strips of metal (leads) the length of the line or by using type caste on a body larger than its face; also used for such spacing when no actual leads or metal type have been used as in photocomposition  LEAF = a piece of paper consisting of one page on its front (recto) and one on its back (verso) LINOTYPE = a typesetting machine, introduced in the 1890s, that cast not individual pieces of type but whole lines called slugs; operation of its keyboard assembled matrices in which molten metal was cast to make the slug  LOWER CASE = the type case placed beneath the upper case in a frame used by compositors; the lower case held noncapital letters MACHINE-PRESS PERIOD = in historical bibliography, the period 1800 – 1950, during which iron presses replaced wooden ones, machine-driven presses replaced hand-powered ones, printing increasingly employed plates rather than type, and typesetting and binding became mechanized; there is no generally accepted term for the period or periods since 1950, in which setting of metal type was given way to photocomposition and computer typesetting and in which photo-offset printing has been dominant MANUSCRIPT = handwritten or typewritten document MONTOTYPE = a typesetting and casting machine developed in the 1890s and consisting of two units: a keyboard unit to code the typesetting by perforating a strip of paper and a casting unit to translate the codes into matrices in which the individual type characters were cast from molten metal  PAGE = one side of a leaf of a book PALEOGRAPHY = the study of handwriting from former times; from ancient times as late as the Renaissance PAPYRUS = a reed cut into strips that, layered and pressed, form a writing material of the same name, as in ancient Greek and Roman rolls PARCHMENT = writing material made from the skin of a sheep or goat; paper resembling such material in its smoothness, translucence and toughness PLATEN = on a printing press, the flat plate that presses paper against inked type; not all presses have platens such as the cylinder press and rotary press PRESSWORK = in book production, the actual printing of the book, excluding the preceding composition and the subsequent binding RECTO = the front of a leaf; the right-hand page RUNNING TITLE = the book title, chapter or other division of title, or subject heading appearing in the headline of a page; also called running head SCRIBE = a public official or functionary charged with the writing, copying, and keeping of documents; a copyist, especially of classical and medieval manuscripts SCRIPTORIUM = a writing room, as that set aside in monasteries for the copying of manuscripts SHEET = a rectangular piece of paper used in printing and then folded to produce the leaves of books SIGNATURE = an alphabet letter placed in the direction line of its first recto to ensure the order of the gatherings STANDING TYPE = type that has been set and printing from but not distributed, as when stored in anticipation of a subsequent impression STEREOTYPE = a printing plate cast from a plaster or a paper (flong) mold of a forme of type TYMPAN = in printing, the cloth or paper placed between the platen of the press and the paper to be printed; in hand printing, the parchment or paper-covered frame that presses the paper to be printed onto the type by the force of the platen; also the frame holding the cloth or paper UPPER CASE = the type case placed in the superior position (above the lower case) in a frame used by compositors; held capital or uppercase letters VELLUM = writing or binding material made from the skin of a calf, kid or lamb; also a sturdy, smooth, cream- coloured paper VERSO = a left-handed page of a book; the side of a manuscript leaf to read second WHAT DOES MATERIALITY TELL US ABOUT BOOKS? Age Where it comes from Cost Genre weight Audience ORALITY TO MANUSCRIPT LITERACY OF THE MAORI PEOPLE OF NEW ZEALAND:  the Treaty of Waitangi can be used as a test case for measuring the impact of literacy and the influence of print in the 1830s  in 1815, the indigenous New Zealanders had been completely illiterate; they had a wholly oral culture  technologies of literacy and print were used as agents of change and for the missionaries’ convictions of reducing speech to alphabetic form, increasing ability to read and write them, a readiness to shift from memory to written record, to accept a signature as a sign of full comprehension and legal commitment, to surrender the relativities of time, place, and person in an oral culture to the presumed fixities of the written or printed word  in 1815, Thomas Kendall, the first resident missionary , faced the problem of reducing speech to is record in alphabetic form; the absence of a philology made a rational orthography hard to devise; he produced A Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of New Zealand  Kendall determined that Maori should not be anglicised; language ran to 5 vowels, 18 consonants and 1 digraph; later reduced to 5 vowels, 9 consonants and 2 unsettled forms  Those decisions about letter forms were typographically efficient but culturally explosive, for by giving English words a Maori semblance they disguised their different conceptual import  The pre-print years were those in which the missionaries made a start to teach reading and writing  Maori were restricted to read biblical texts and vocabulary; they were limited to knowledge of an ancient middle-eastern culture, at the same time the missionaries enhanced their familiar pastoral role by making the Maori dependent on them morally and politically as interpretative guides  Kendall set up the first school with 33 pupils in 1816, but it was not until the early 1830s that numbers were at all significant  The main use of literacy to the Maori was not reading books for their ideas, but for letter writing because a letter allowed the person who wrote it to be in two places at once, his body in one, his thoughts in another  The early 1830s were the hesitant beginnings of letter writing; only when literacy began to serve supreme social interest could it be significantly achieved  Initially, printing in New Zealand was anticlimax, proving that technology is nothing without a human mind and dedicated skill to make it work in a context where it matters; “even a little axe, well used, brings plenty of food”  In May 19 1835, Colenso printed the first English book which was a report of the New Zealand Temperance Society; a prophetic start  Then he printed the complete Maori New Testament in 1836-37; by 1845, there was at least one Maori New Testament for every two Maori people in New Zealand  The book was given a totemic power; an important tribal object  In the 1840s, less Maoris attended school; the missionaries failed to equip the Maori to negotiate their rights regarding land; failed to create literacy in Maori  Selwyn broke away from the old policy of using religious texts and produced the first primer to help Maori read English; the strict religious nature in literacy was omitted  January 30 1840: Colenso printed 100 copies of a letter in Maori inviting chiefs to meet at Waitangi on th rd February 5 ; an English draft of the treaty was written on the 3 and given to Henry Williams to translate into th th Maori on the 4 ; the translation was discussed with the chiefs on the 5 in which alterations were made and revised onto the Maori version; the copy of it was presented to the chiefs on the 6 for their signatures - 5 English versions of the treaty existed; the extant Maori version is not a translation of any one of the five versions, nor is any of the English ones a translation from the Maori  Problems with the Treaty: - Other complications of textual authority derive from the fact that names were added to the treaty which the signatories, being pre-literate could not have read - The Maori were unlikely to have been able to read what he was signing because the discussion of the Treaty was based on an oral-aural tradition; it was received as an oral statement - The Maori language was used against the Maori; their mode of dealing was oral which virtually left no matching record - Maori people didn’t understand the Treaty properly; their understanding was formed by their sense of the independence and sovereignty they had affirmed and reaffirmed; different terms were used to explain the Treaty; had any Maori heard that he was giving up his mana (personal prestige) or rangatiratanga (chieftainship), he could never have agreed to the treaty’s terms - All who draft documents secure an initiative, determine the concepts and choose the linguistic terms by which to reveal or conceal them; an oral response is weaker in power to bind - For the non-literate, the document and its implications were meaningless and for the barely literate, the ability to sign one’s name was a trap - The English versions have been taken to bestow legality on the actions of successive governments, while the Maori version seems morally to justify the deep sense of grievance still widely suffered over Maori land issues  Maori point of view: the truth is not so confined and signatures bear no absolute authority  Literacy defines itself for many as a concordat of sword and pen, of politics and script, to the dismay and frustration of those whose modes are real  The text in context deconstructs and loses their literal authority; the book in all its forms, enters history only as an evidence of human behaviour and it remains active only in the service of human needs  Texts are regarded not simply as verbal constructs but as social products THE SOCIOLOGY OF TEXTS:  books are containers and from its surface, we are able to obtain information  texts are social and physical objects of society and time  they are not merely just words on a page – they affect people  they are human, social processes  to understand how ideas are transmitted through print and how exposure to the printed word affects the thought and behaviour of mankind during the last 500 years  Reading symbols THE HISTORY OF BOOKS:  The study arose from convergence of several disciplines on a common set of problems and having to do with communication th  Stretches back to the scholarship of the Renaissance and began during the 19 century when the study of books as material objects led to the rise of analytical bibliography in England; Tried to uncover the general patterns of book production and consumption over long stretches of time; demonstrated the importance of asking new questions using methods  This spread throughout Europe and the US  Field separated into crisscrossing disciplines: analytical bibliography, historical bibliography, etc.. THE LIFE CYCLE OF BOOKS:  Printed books generally pass through roughly the same life cycle  Described as a communications circuit that runs from the author to the publisher, the printer, the shipper, the bookseller and the reader  The reader completes the circuit because he influences the author before and after the act of composition  The circuit transmits messages, transforming them en route, as they pass from thought to writing to printed characters and back to thought again  All stages are affected by the social, economic, political and intellectual conditions of the time  The trade fell into the same pattern which can be envisaged as a series of concentric circles: at the center, one or two firms tried to monopolize the market; a few small dealers survived by specializing in chapbooks and old volumes by setting up reading clubs; and adventurers moved in and out of the market selling forbidden literature  Transport facilities determined ebb and flow of business in remote areas  Booksellers operate within commercial networks which expand and collapse like alliances in the diplomatic world  Books were sold as commodities everywhere  Texts shape the response of readers  Typography, style and syntax determine the ways in which texts convey meanings  Reciprocal relationship between authors and readers  Booksellers manifest texts of a creation TYPES OF BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. REFERENCE - Concerned with enumerating, describing and providing access to works as opposed to books - A works cited page - The most familiar - Includes abstracts, summaries or descriptions of the works B. HISTORICAL - A wider, boarder approach associated with the larger questions the book carries (when & where) - Collective understanding of a cultural movement in terms of books - Acts as a tool to explain history through the books (concerned with history) - Focus on particular publishers, printers, booksellers, binders, or typefounders, or devote to the study of paper, type, presses of periods, bindings, book illustrations, etc… - Growth of bibliography as a science - Example: Robert Darnton C. ANALTYICAL - Examines books as physical objects; what their physical form reveals about its history of production - Focuses on an individual book, unlike historical that focuses on a collective - Geologists of book history; what are the environmental factors that influence the book production - Try to determine the date and method of composition, the source and nature of the composition, the identity and proclivities of the compositors, the kind and quality of type or the kind of machine used in composition - Determine how the book was exposed to the public, its binding and dust jacket - anatomizes the process that brought the book into being D. DESCRIPTIVE - Interested in describing books produced by historical processes - Comes from the knowledge of bookmaking and specifying to the book itself - Often takes the form of author bibliographies - Focuses on looking at multiple copies of the same text to provide history and serves as a standard of evaluation - Presents an orderly description of the physical embodiments of texts - May be employed in a historical or critical essay TEXTUAL CRITICISM = the study of the transmission of texts; aim is to trace the history of texts and to establish texts according to certain principles and using certain methods which have varied from period to period of history; focuses on the wording of a text rather than its physical embodiments; Uses many of the findings of analytical and descriptive bibliographies & assists the textual critic in determining the sequence of textual alterations made during the printing of a book; Deals with the relations between different states & versions of a text produced over a period of time; Requires the judgment of gathering & interpretation of evidence  THE WHOLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONJECTURE BY THOMAS R.ADAMS & NICHOLAS BARKER:  “Author” is under “publication”  Some books have few copies; they did not survive due to lack of popularity  Unlike Darnton’s circuit, this one includes influences on the outside that are constricting and fundamentally affecting how books are being produced  Stresses that influences are shaping how books are being produced  Darnton’s circuit is clockwise; this one includes more interactions between people involved in printing  No indication of starting point though THE MAKING OF TEXT IN MANUSCRIPT BOOKS: th  Monks were first used to copy texts, but by the mid-14 century, professional scribes were employed by individual wealthy patrons for private copying and by the early 15 century, occasional manuscripts occur  Influenced by the growth of universities and by the immense amount of clerical work demanded by the ever- growing government  The system of parcelling out work at the universities was called “percia” whereby a specific scribe might be responsible for producing a number of copies of the same section of a larger work, the other parts being given to someone else – this practice are indications of general book trade  The scribes’ pay would account for 30% of the total cost of a book, with meals and lodgings accounting for another 30% on a book taking about four months to copy  The second most expensive part of the book was the parchment on which it was written; other costs included ink, vermilion, illumination and binding  Copying a book considered both spiritually enabling and laborious; physical discomfort, the lack of appreciation from superiors, poor salary, loss of eyesight, arduous and boring  Physical discomfort could even be used as a means of penitence  There was no heat and no artificial light for fear of damaging manuscripts  Silence was demanded in the monastic scriptorium to ensure concentration; signs or gestures were used if references were needed  Steps:  Gathering was completed by a scribe  A corrector then compared it to the original text for quality control and accuracy and to avoid the proliferation of different texts  Gatherings then given to a rubricator who decorated initials and details; usually in red ink and specialized texts such as fancy capital letters  If it was particularly important or a lavish book, it would be given to an illuminator for illumination THE FORM OF MANUSCRIPT BOOKS:  Series of separate leaves either glued together to make a continuous roll or stitched together at their folds to make a codex; used as a model for the later codices of parchment or papyrus  The roll form of books was very difficult to read, was written on one side, referring to a specific passage was almost impossible, was bulky and an inconvenient way of storing information  However, a text written in codex could be easily cited, a convenience quickly realized, could receive writing on both sides of the leaf, was compact and could store longer texts, more easily storable  The codex form was taken up very quickly by Christians THE MATERIALS OF MANUSCRIPT BOOKS: 1. PAPYRUS - Made from plants growing near the banks of the Nile - The inner ring of the plant was cut into long thin strips and were laid out horizontally side by side, then backed with a transverse set of strips  it is because of this crisscross method that only one side could be used for writing (vertical strips would interrupt flow of writing) - Soaked in water, and excluded a glue that welded the strips together - Having been dried and hammered out, the papyrus could be polished with ivory or shell and then glued into a continuous roll (scapus) - The first sheet of the roll was called “protokollon” and the last was called “eschatakollion” 2. PARCHMENT - Was more expensive - Was dependent on the death of an animal rather than on the harvesting of reed plants; more durable and attractive to Christians who wanted to preserve the sacred scriptures - Had the advantage of being capable of reuse with a rescraping of the surface (palimpsests) - Made from animal skin; types: vellum (baby animal skin) and uterine (aborted calf skin) - To make, the skin was washed thoroughly, soaked in brine or lyme, de-haired and stretched on a frame to be scraped, rubbed and polished with pumice and chalk - Leaf sizes were more or less fixed according to the type of book - Hair follicles remained and this gave a peculiarly spotted appearance to the surface - Leaves were arranged so that the two hair sides would always face each other as would the two flesh sides - Before being written on, it was ruled by pricking the skin with an awl or spoked wheel, then with a dry-point stylus 3. PAPER - Produced in China during the first century AD and made from rags, nets, bark, and waste th - Spread to Japan and Arabia, spreading to Egypt by the 10 century and shortly after Spain, made in Europe in the 12 century and was known as “charta bombacina” - First paper mill in England by 1495 th - Until the 18 century, paper was made by hand - Unlike papyrus and parchment, it does not occur in nature in its final useful form - Raw materials had to be disintegrated and reintegrated in water, boiled to remove the fat and dye, then beaten with mallets to a pulp to which water was added to form a cream-like suspension; pulp was poured into a rectangular frame crisscrossed with wires and over this was another frame; pulp was shaken, stretched and applied pressure to squeeze the water out; sheets were hung over poles to dry and sized in animal gelatin 4. WRITING INSTRUMENTS - Different types of material needed different types of writing instruments th th - The use of a quill became more common from about the 6 century and replaced the reed by the 11 - The most common quill was a goose feather cut straight with a square edge and held obliquely 5. INKS - Basic constituents are pigment / dye and a liquid to carry it (vehicle) - Were usually of the carbon variety (lampblack or soot mixed with gum) but could not preserve text permanently - Later ink was made using iron-gall mixed with gum and water but faded after time because it was brownish rather than black and ate into the parchment via gallic acid - Gutenberg later created a new ink made from lampblack with a varnish of linseed oil and resin; was less fluid like paint and faster drying THE FORMAT OF MANUSCRIPT BOOKS:  The papyrus and parchment roll had no format in the bibliographical sense as it was simply rolled or unrolled and tied with cords; stored in cylindrical caskets; could be joined via glue or sewn side by side  The sheet of parchment folded once and stitched along the fold was called a “folio”; were collected in gatherings of four called “quaternions”; 4 sheets = 8 leaves (folios) = 16 pages  A single sheet of parchment could contain sections of text from widely separated areas of the book to be copied  Scribes tended to use abbreviations since it was necessary to ensure the correct fitting of all the parts; some calculated in advance the appropriate number of folios needed THE BINDING OF MANUSCRIPT BOOKS:  Coptic method  four holes were made through the folded quires, through which a leather thong was passed and secured to the cover-spine; covers of the codex were attached by sheets of papyrus linking the boards directly to the other quires of the book  Medieval method  use cords attached directly to the boards through which holes were bored for the purpose; quires were stitched to cords running at right angles to the folds of the quires  Bindings are one of the features of bookmaking that carry over from the manuscript to the printed book, for th th it was not until the late 18 or early 19 centuries that it became the norm for virtually all books to be sold in publishers’ bindings THE PROCESS OF MAKING THE HAND-PRINTED BOOK:  Alphabets of type were kept in cases, wooden trays divided into many separate compartments with a supply of letters  Rough estimate of the length of the book had to be made so that the right amount of paper for the edition could be ordered; compositor did this via casting off by counting words and by computation according to the sizes of type and page that had been decided on  The copy was given out to individual compositors for setting in type; how it was divided was influenced by the size of the shop; Compositor’s apparatus was in three main parts: type cases, a composing stick and galleys  The compositor propped his manuscript copy on his case and picked up the letters he wanted one by one with his right hand; The adjustable slide of the stick measured the length of the line of type required and the width of the column of type in the book  He set them up in a small tray called a composing stick held in his left hand and separated each word with spaces (blank type)  Even margins made by the alteration of the amount of space between words; process known as justification  When the composing stick was full, the contents were transferred on to another tray called a galley (a whole page) and it was tied around with string and put aside; process continues for other pages  The compositor set enough pages for a whole sheet and arranged those that were to go on each side of it in a special order and fixed them in a pair of iron frames (chases); process known as imposition  Trial prints were made and compared with the copy from which they had been set; errors were marked on the proof by a corrector and used by the compositor as a guide in correcting the type  The forms were placed on the printing press which consisted of a wooden frame, a screw worked by a handle, a platen, and movable carriage where type and paper were run in under the platen for printing  Normally worked by two pressmen: one fitted the paper into the press, folded it down on the type, ran the carriage under the platen and pulled the bar which pressed the paper on to the type while the other got the ink ready and dabbed it over the face of the type; the other side of each paper was printed the same way  The warehouseman arranged all the heaps of printed sheets in order to form the book  Books were then delivered to the binder who folded each sheet, sewn them together into individual volumes and covered the volumes with paper or leather THE WOODEN HAND-PRESS:  Consisted of a wooden frame which contained two groups of moving parts – the carriage assembly which carried the type and paper in and out of the press and the impression assembly by which the paper was pressed down onto the inked type  When a forme was in place on the press stone, paper was lowered on to it via a tympan and frisket; the paper was laid upon the parchment (covered frame of tympan) where it was pierced by two points and held in place on the points by the frisket and covered with parchment cut with holes to let the inked type through when all were folded together on the forme TEXTUAL TRANSMISSIONS OF THE HAND-PRESS PERIOD: 1. Author comes up with idea, creates notes, outlines and from that, full drafts of the entire work are completed 2. Author will produce a series of autograph manuscripts, each bearing successive alternations in the text 3. Author makes a fair copy in his own hand for his own use 4. From this copy, he then produces another copy for presentation to a patron and another to show his colleagues for judgment, etc…; each copy is a slightly different version of the text, derived from the first fair copy he kept for himself 5. Author employs a professional copyist to prepare a more elaborate and careful copy(s) for circulation to friends and possible patrons; this scribal copy derives from the personal fair copy but combines with the fair copy sent to colleagues and includes alterations made by the scribe 6. Author sends scribal copy to printer-publisher with some minor revisions and the publisher begins to prepare the work for printing 7. If the printer’s proof-reader detected errors, the press would be stopped and errors corrected (stop-press corrected formers); this creates the first edition 8. If text is popular, the printer-publisher has the compositors set a new edition using the first edition as setting copy and a new title page is set and printed with a more current date which is inserted in all remaining unsold copies of the first edition; this edition will have all the readings of the first setting, the stop-press corrections, and all those errors made by the compositors while setting the reprint OR reissue the first edition 9. For another edition, the printer-publisher asks the author if he would like to revise his work; the author normally would take a copy of the printed edition and mark it up with his revisions or would choose to produce another manuscript without consulting any of the printed editions 10. Author creates a new version of the work; one rough draft followed by at least one fair copy for the compositors 11. From this, another version of the text is born in the production of the fair copy and another when the compositor sets the manuscript into type; the same processes of proofing, stop-press corrections and the like will occur 12. If popularity continues, the printer-publisher will produce a cheap edition without consulting the author; this edition is merely a copy of the third edition, published without proofing or checking of any kind 13. Once popularity wanes, printer-publisher will print a duodecimo edition, set from a copy of the second edition EDITION BINDING IN THE MACHINE-PRESS PERIOD:  Was more attractively applied to books which could expect a large and rapid sale  The situation was entirely changed by various developments in binding technique which originated in the 1820s: via the replacement of the traditional process of building up a binding by speedier prefabrication, the piecemeal mechanization of the binding processes, and the introduction of cloth as a covering material which was stronger and more durable than paper PRINTING MACHINES: A. THE IRON HAND-PRESS o was not much more productive than the wooden presses they replaced o chief advantages lay in their greater precision and durability o didn’t expand like the wooden ones o not connected to anything, unlike the wooden ones that were connected to the ceiling o cheaper to maintain B. WHARFEDALE CYLINDER MACHINE o Made in the late 19 century o Introduced the use of cylinders that roll over type and uses less force than the iron press o Used a flat weight o Less laborious to use o The impressions were made by a rotating cylinder rather than a flat platen C. MIDDLETON PERFECTING MACHINE o Were equipped with two cylinders which printed both sides of a sheet o Increased productivity; the output was 900 sheets per hour, compared to the output of 150 sheets per hour of the iron press o Was introduced in 1816, but wasn’t popular due to early technology o Massive force damaged the types o Reflected the industrial revolution D. ROTARY PRINTING MACHINE o Used for newspapers o The type itself was on rollers E. MINERVA PLATEN JOBBER o Designed for jobbing houses (produced on-demand printing such as lost-dog ads) o Straight forward and quick to use o Included ink rollers and a self-inking machine o A single person could operate it, unlike previous methods o Text fitted upright o Foot pedal to power machine (steam power) o Self-contained machine and very efficient o One could be unskilled and still use it o Didn’t require external power F. COLD-METAL COMPOSITION MACHINE th o Introduced in the mid-19 century o Stored in magazines o Used a keyboard to release individual pieces of type in the correct order o Problem: they didn’t do spacing and justify lines, so you still needed a compositor to do those things; speed of this process was only a minimal change or improvement o Didn’t catch on G. HOT-METAL CASTING MACHINE o Caught on th o Introduced at the end of the 19 century o More like a typewriter because it uses a mold o Single mold constantly reused o Benefits: don’t have damage on types, casting a new type for every new line, used for recycling after done with it – melted to create other molds o LINOTYPE  Don’t run out of letters  More efficient because bigger pieces means easy to keep the molds locked in o MONOTYPE  Casting it letter by letter  Don’t run out of letters  Use a spool somewhere else  Easier to correct mistakes because it produces one character at a time  Used for smaller printing TEXTUAL TRANSMISSIONS OF THE MACHINE-PRESS PERIOD: 1. Author comes up with idea, creates notes, outlines and from that, the entire work is completed as a rough draft typescript which contains typographical errors and second thoughts, additions and deletions in pen or pencil 2. Author sends off the work to a professional typist who produces a clean typescript and a carbon 3. Author mixes the carbon sheets with the ribbon sheets to create two complete copies of professional typescript 4. Author revises one of the typescripts and submits it to a publisher 5. The publisher agrees to publish the work and the typescript is subjected to the scrutiny of the publisher’s editors, resulting in another version of the text 6. The revised and edited typescript is sent out for typesetting, resulting in another version of the text because of the changes introduced by the compositor (galley proofs); these are read by the author and the publisher and returned to the compositor for correction 7. The compositor produces another set of proofs which are read by the publisher and the author and returned for further correction 8. The work is printed, bound and put on sale; this is the first edition of the book; however, the publisher and the printer make three sets of stereotype plates, putting two in storage and using the third to print this edition 9. A fourth impression of the first edition is made by altering the title page, dedication and a few other parts 10. Author takes a copy of the revised impression and marks it up with changes, revisions and corrections; the publisher uses this as a second edition 11. Publisher takes one of the stereotype plates of the first edition from storage, changes its title page to reflect a later date and states that it’s the third edition 12. Publisher brings out second stored edition, alters the title page and calls it the fourth edition; later the work is reset and used to print an actual third edition and two impressions 13. Author may change the concept of work and writes an entirely new draft, has a typist produce a ribbon copy and a carbon copy 14. Ribbon copy goes straight to the publisher, is editing into compositor’s copy by the publisher’s staff and set into galleys; this is used for the fourth edition called “fifth edition, newly revised” ELECTRONIC FORMS OF TEXTUAL TRANSMISSION:  Due to the adoption of comp
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