Chapter 3.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Statistical Sciences
Augustin Vukov

Chapter 3 The three rules of data analysis: 1) make a picture that will help you think about the patters and relationships that may be hiding in your data 2) make a picture that will show important features and patterns in your data 3) make a picture that will give you the opportunity to tell others about your data But before you make an charts, always check the categorical data condition: the data are summy counts or percentages of individuals in categories Frequency table: records the totals and the category names. Lists the categories in a categorical variable and gibes the count (or percentage_ of the observations for each category Class Count First 124 Second 215 Third 325 Crew 1000 Relative Frequency table: displays the proportions or percentages. To get the percentage we divide the counts by the total number of cases and then multiply by 100 to express these proportions as percentages The Area Principle: each data value should be represented by the same amount of area Bar Chart: show a bar whose area represents the count (or percentage) of observations for each category of a categorical variable Pie Charts: show the whole group of cases as a circle. They slice the circle into pieces whose size is proportional to the fraction of the whole in each category. Pie charts give a quick impressions of how a whole group is partitioned into smaller groups. Contingency table: What does this data tell us? In order to make relationships between the data you can make a contingency table: displays counts, and sometimes percentages of individuals falling into named categories on tow or more variables. Shows how individuals are distributed along each variable, contingent on the value of the other variable. Fir
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