TRN125Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Henry Bouquet, Monkeypox, Ramesses V

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Smallpox
Smallpox is an old world disease which was spread to the new world by the Spanish into Mexico
and Peru, wiping out the Aztecs and Incas who had no previous exposure or immunity and were
greatly effected suffering many loses.
It is indiscriminate - no one is immune , effects everyone
Smallpox is suspected to have originated from a similar pox like disease that arouse out of
domesticated animals from agricultural settlers in Asia and Africa (10 00 BC)
Evidence found in 3 Egyptian mummies - Pharaoh Ramses V died 1155 BC was found to have
pockmarks on his face, neck and shoulders
The disease started in agricultural valleys of great rivers I Africa and India spreading west to
China (200 BC) through caravan trade routes
Became a major health problem in Greece and Rome in 100 AD ( plague of Antonius) it
started in Mesopotamia being brought over to Italy by returning soldiers (plague lasted 15
years)
Hit Korean peninsula in 583 AD and Japan in 585 AD
Major spread of smallpox in Europe happened in the 8th and 9th century ( Islamic expansion into
North Africa Spain and Portugal )
Smallpox became a serious disease in England in the 16th century and spread with the
discoveries of the Americas, Australia, and Africa
English settlers set off an epidemic among Indian tribes of America in 1763 - using smallpox as a
weapon of germ warfare (war b/w England and France for control over N. America) Colonel
Henry Bouquet deliberately inoculated the Indians. Sending blankets contaminated with scabby
smallpox material leading to many deaths and their defection
In West Africa traveled by caravans that moved to N. Africa and the guinea coast
In 1490 it was spread by the Portuguese to Southern Regions of West Africa
It was Introduced 3 times into South Africa ; 1) In 1713 By an Indian ship docking in Capetown
carrying contaminated bed linen, 2) 1755 by a ship from Sri Lanka, and 3) 1767 by a ship from
Denmark
First break out in America was among African slaves on the island of Hispaniola in 1518
deaths estimated to be around 200 000 of Amerindian labour fare was lost creating a need for
replacements in the mines and plantations of the West Indies, Dominican Republic and Cuba;
This need stimulated the slave trade; Slaves also brought smallpox to Brazil (Portuguese
colony)
Was first recorder in Sydney in 1789 decimating the Aboriginal tribes which paved the way for
the expansion of the British
Smallpox is a virus (one of the largest) it can be seen with the light of a microscope with proper
illumination
They outer surface resembles the facets of a diamond and the inner surface a dumbbell-shaped
curve which contains the genetic materials
It has 200 genes 35 of which involve virulence other poxviruses that can infect humans are
monkey pox, cowpox, milker’s node, tanapox and chicken pox most of which are mild cases
in humans except monkeypox, which is virtually indistinguishable from smallpox
Small pox enters the body through droplets infecting by inhalation by can also be contracted by
direct contact or through contaminated fomites (clothing, bedding, blankets, dust,
handkerchiefs)
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