Chapter 9.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Trinity College Courses
Michelle Silver

Smallpox  Smallpox is an old world disease which was spread to the new world by the Spanish into Mexico and Peru, wiping out the Aztecs and Incas who had no previous exposure or immunity and were greatly effected suffering many loses.  It is indiscriminate - no one is immune , effects everyone  Smallpox is suspected to have originated from a similar pox like disease that arouse out of domesticated animals from agricultural settlers in Asia and Africa (10 00 BC)  Evidence found in 3 Egyptian mummies - Pharaoh Ramses V died 1155 BC was found to have pockmarks on his face, neck and shoulders  The disease started in agricultural valleys of great rivers I Africa and India spreading west to China (200 BC) through caravan trade routes  Became a major health problem in Greece and Rome in 100 AD ( plague of Antonius)  it started in Mesopotamia being brought over to Italy by returning soldiers (plague lasted 15 years)  Hit Korean peninsula in 583 AD and Japan in 585 AD  Major spread of smallpox in Europe happened in the 8 and 9 century ( Islamic expansion into North Africa Spain and Portugal ) th  Smallpox became a serious disease in England in the 16 century and spread with the discoveries of the Americas, Australia, and Africa  English settlers set off an epidemic among Indian tribes of America in 1763 - using smallpox as a weapon of germ warfare (war b/w England and France for control over N. America) Colonel Henry Bouquet deliberately inoculated the Indians. Sending blankets contaminated with scabby smallpox material leading to many deaths and their defection  In West Africa traveled by caravans that moved to N. Africa and the guinea coast  In 1490 it was spread by the Portuguese to Southern Regions of West Africa  It was Introduced 3 times into South Africa ; 1) In 1713 By an Indian ship docking in Capetown carrying contaminated bed linen, 2) 1755 by a ship from Sri Lanka, and 3) 1767 by a ship from Denmark  First break out in America was among African slaves on the island of Hispaniola in 1518  deaths estimated to be around 200 000 of Amerindian labour fare was lost creating a need for replacements in the mines and plantations of the West Indies, Dominican Republic and Cuba; This need stimulated the slave trade; Slaves also brought smallpox to Brazil (Portuguese colony)  Was first recorder in Sydney in 1789 decimating the Aboriginal tribes which paved the way for the expansion of the British  Smallpox is a virus (one of the largest) it can be seen with the light of a microscope with proper illumination  They outer surface resembles the facets of a diamond and the inner surface a dumbbell-shaped curve which contains the genetic materials  It has 200 genes 35 of which involve virulence  other poxviruses that can infect humans are monkey pox, cowpox, milker’s node, tanapox and chicken pox  most of which are mild cases in humans except monkeypox, which is virtually indistinguishable from smallpox  Small pox enters the body through droplets infecting by inhalation by can also be contracted by direct contact or through contaminated fomites (clothing, bedding, blankets, dust, handkerchiefs)  Material from pustules can remain infectious for months  mucous membranes of mouth and nose is where the virus multiplies  There is no sign of illness during the first week of infection, but the virus can be spread but coughing or nasal mucus the virus moves to the lymph nodes and then the internal organs thorough the bloodstream  Afte
More Less

Related notes for TRN125Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.