HLTB40 Readings.docx

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Trinity College Courses
Michelle Silver

Lecture 2 http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/canada/regions/atlantic/pdf/pub_policy_partic_e.pdf  Do you have a Direct or Indirect Impact? o Initial Situation Analysis ( what policies already exist, values, priorities) o Nature of your Involvement ( degree of control, amount of influence, ability to participate and bring awareness) o What is the most appropriate posture for the government to take in responding to the situation.  Reactive: responsive to issues arising in the external environment; minimal planning; narrow view; limited resources; court decision.  Preactive: we scan, predict, and prepare for issues, factors, and trends. We attempt to identify potential risk in advance, mitigate where we can and implement contingency plans where we cannot. We look for potential unanticipated consequences.  Proactive: developing and pursuing a vision; leading from values and principles. o Are the changes in policy driven by the Government or Community? If at the government level, what level? If at the community level, how is community being defined (geographic, interest groups)? o Are there links to major desired system changes/pressures? o Inclusion/exclusion, determinants of health, citizen engagement, sustainability o Who may care or be affected by this? (issues of allocation too)  These are some general questions you need to understand before figuring out what is going on in a situation. You need to define a problem before you solve it in the world of public policy this may be the difficult part of the process. o There are usually multiple stakeholders. The most effective way to do this is to define the problem in a way where all stakeholders can see their own interests.  POLICY PROCESS – to describe the purpose of public policy we need to consider the origins and the types of public policies and the key factors in policy development. Then we look at hoe public policy is developed and outline a comprehensive 6 step process. The conclude by discussing some neglected areas that represent emerging views on essential aspects of policy development such as implementation, alignment, and transfer.  DEFINTION OF PUBLIC POLICY – there are a bunch of definitions. One definition public policy is a choice or decision made by government that guides subsequent actions in similar circumstances.  UNDERSTANDING POLICY (PERSONAL APPROACH) – Individual, Families, Organizations, Governments. All of these have policies and there are reasons why these policies are created.  ORIGINS OF PUBLIC POLICY – Policy issues can be separated into two categories: 1) those already on the public policy agenda 2) those that are not. If it is already on the agenda it is already in a high priority, if it isn’t then it is the job of the community and the stakeholders to inform and educate to get it on the agenda. o Gerston suggests for an issue to be on the public agenda it must meet 3 criteria: 1) sufficient scope ( a significant number of people or communities are affected) 2) Intensity (the magnitude of the impact is high) 3) time (it has been an issue over a long period)  Policy development is reactive when it responds to issues and factors that emerge, sometimes with little warning, from the internal or external environments by:  resolving problems and issues  meeting stakeholder/public concerns  reacting to decisions by other governments, other levels of government, or other  departments with intersecting or interrelated mandates  allocating fiscal resources, natural resources, etc.  reacting to media attention (generally adverse)  reacting to crises or emergencies  Policy development is preactive when it responds to triggers that are recognized because we are scanning the operating environment, identifying potential issues and factors that could affect us,and predicting and preparing for mitigation and/or contingency through:  planning  strategic choice  risk management  criteria determination  priority setting  establishing partnerships  It is very rare that formal policy development is genuinely proactive.  In practice the nature of policy development is that such that the majority of policy decisions reflect only minor changes to the status quo.  The challenges associated with developing integrated policy requires a big picture, the whole system perspective that can identify and address root causes as well as symptoms. This may offer the best opportunity for proactive policy development. At this point however proactive policy seems more like a vision then a reality.  Policy can be driven by political leaders, departments, intersectoral bureaucratic committees, a very powerful stakeholder such as an industrial lobby group, or by the community.  TYPES OF PUBLIC POLICY – There are 2 types of public policy: 1) Vertical Policy – developed within an organization that has authority and resources for implementation. 2) Horizontal policy – sometimes referred to as integrated policy, is developed by two or more organizations each of which has authority or the ability to deal with only part of the situation o Vertical Policy – we think this is the normal traditional way in which policy decisions are made.  Developed within a single organizational structure and generally starts with a broad overarching policy, sometimes called ‘corporate’ or ‘framework’ policy.  Decisions are made at the head office. At the regional level we may develop a strategic policy, which translates the national decisions to the regional levels. Then the regional policy is made specific enough to guide operational decision making.  The challenge for many organizations today is thus to maintain enough central policy direction to ensure consistency and equity, while at the same time giving .field staff. enough autonomy to ensure that operational policy is responsive to local needs and reflective of local values. Another way to view traditional, vertical policy is as a set of nesting wooden dolls. The large outer doll opens to reveal a smaller doll inside. That one also opens, and so on until finally you 12 reach a small, solid doll at the centre. This doll is the core or pattern from which the others are developed. Because of its size, its costume does not have the same level of detail as that of the outer dolls . in fact, the larger the do
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