Freud - Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
University College Courses
Scott Rayter

The sexual aberrations - Libido = sexual hunger (240) - Sexual object = person from whom sexual attraction proceeds (240) - Sexual aim = act towards which the instinct tends (240) Deviations in respect of the sexual object: inversion - Some people are absolute inverts, where their sexual objects are exclusively of their own sex (241) - Some people are amphigenic inverts, who may be attracted to either sex (241) - Some people are contingent inverts, where under certain external conditions, particularly not having access to their usual sexual object, they will choose someone of the same sex as their sexual object (241) - Some inverts see their inversion as normal and accept it and others think it is pathological and rebel against it (241) - Inversion may make its appearance at any time and may last forever or may only last for one single relationship (241) - Sometimes after a distressing experience with a normal sexual object, the person will become an invert (241) - Inversion is considered degenerate (242) - It only makes sense to speak of degeneracy where several serious deviations from the normal are found together and these deviations impede functioning or survival (242) - But in this sense of the word, inverts can’t always be regarded as degenerate, because sometimes inversion is found in people who don’t experience any kind of other serious deviations (242) - This inversion doesn’t necessarily impact a person’s efficiency, productivity, or functioning, and can be found in people who have high levels of any of the above (242) - Inversion has been frequently found in different empires at the height of their civilization, particularly Ancient Rome (242) - Inversion is remarkably widespread throughout civilized and primitive races, although the concept of degeneracy is only found among civilized people (242) - Innateness is only attributed to the most extreme types of inversion, the absolute ones, and this innateness rests upon assurances from the inverts that they have never been attracted to the opposite sex (242) - The other types of inversion may come about in other ways (243) - Others believe that inversion is an acquired character of the sexual instinct (243) - In the case of many inverts, including absolute ones, an experience occurred that left a tendency towards homosexuality (243) - In many other cases, we can point to external influences that may have led to their inversion (ex. detention in prison, celibacy, etc.) (243) - Inversion can be removed by hypnotic suggestion, which is not usual for natural characteristic (243) - However, many people may have the same sexual influences (ex. abuse) and not become inverted (243) - Bisexuality is a type of “sexual hermaphroditism” (243) - Hermaphroditism occurs to a certain extent in normal people, where the characteristics of the other sex either persist without function or take on other normative functions (244) - It is possible that bisexuality is a natural state of being for everyone, but in the course of evolution, it has become modified into a heterosexual one, leaving behind traces of homosexuality or bisexuality (244) - The theory of psychical hermaphroditism presupposes that a male invert will feel like a woman searching for a man, but this is not a universal fact, since some male inverts are still very masculine and they look for feminine traits in their partners (244) - In Ancient Greece, the most masculine men would have sexual relations with other men whose traits were feminine (245) - In this instance the sexual object is neither a woman nor a man but someone who combines attributes found in both men and women (245) - The sexual object in this case reflects the subject’s “bisexual” nature (245) - Inverts generally fixate on the mother, as all boys do, but eventually they identify themselves with her and with women in general, and then take themselves as their sexual object (245) - All human beings are capable of making a homosexual object-choice in the unconscious (245) - There are many different conditions which have all been lumped under the umbrella of homosexuality (245) - No one single aim can apply in cases of inversion (245) - Sodomy is not necessarily found in inverts (245) - The sexual object and the sexual instinct are often not connected (246) - Pedophiles are not usually exclusively pedophilic; usually pedophiles are simply cowardly or impotent and choose children as sexual objects because they are easier to obtain (246) Deviations in respect of the sexual aim - The normal sexual aim is the union of the genitals (247) - There are other sexual aims within this sexual aim, ex. touching and looking at one’s partner, which can develop into perversions if they are the sexual end (247) - Perversions are activities that either extend anatomically beyond the regions of the body designed for sexual union or which linger instead of quickly being over and the sexual aim being sought (ex. extended foreplay) (247) Anatomical extensions - It is natural for one to appreciate his partner’s entire body and not simply the genitals (247) - Using the mouth as a sexual organ is perverse if this is oral sex, but not if it’s kissing (248) - The only reason why we might think that kissing is a
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