Maynard - On the Case of the Case.docx

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University College Courses
Scott Rayter

- The case of Walter, a butcher in 1911 who was found guilty of gross indecency for homosexual behavior – doctor found no evidence of mental illness, but the judge said that his behavior must be due to some “disease of the mind” (153) - Foucault said that sometime in the nineteenth century the homosexual became a “case history” (153) - What he meant was that the case history helped bring the idea of the “homosexual” into existence (154) - Foucault identified “examination” as a main form of disciplinary power, and this examination makes each person a case, and the individual then becomes an object of knowledge and a conduit for power relations (154) - George Chauncey argued against Foucault that doctors were investigating a subculture rather than creating one (154) - There are debates in many other fields as well about how discourse and the material world affect each other and affect our knowledge of epochs (154) - The material and the discursive worlds are not actually mutually exclusive - they can coexist as a dynamic system (154) - If doctors didn't invent the homosexual, then what did they do? (154) - They translated male-male sexual experiences into cases of insanity, perversion, and homosexuality (154) - In the US, medical professionals didn't play a large role in regulating homosexuality until World War II (155) - The fact that Ontario courts sent men charged with homosexual offended for psychiatric examinations starting around 1910 suggests that Canada began to draw on the power of medical professionals and discourse sooner than the US (155) - Until the mid twentieth century, doctors and medical discourse had little influence on the lives and self-understandings of gay men, in the US, while the opposite is true in Ontario (155) - Doctors had the power to influence a man's punishment for homosexual behaviour (155) - The links between criminality, insanity, and homosexuality were largely created by medical discourse of homosexuality as a disease of the mind (155) - The case history itself can be traced back to Hippocrates, but case taking didn't become formalized or systematic until it became linked with clinical schools because it only then became necessary to produce a unitary professional discourse (155) - In the nineteenth century, urbanization demanded the development of social data, ex surveys, statistics, demographics, case histories, etc. (155) - The idea of a case history was also linked to the efforts of experts to professionalize their fields by using step by step procedures to "diagnose" people (156) - The case history was central to the professionalization of psychiatry (156) - Trials for people convicted of homosexual acts in the late nineteenth century began to rely on evidence of the accused's mental state (156) - Some doctors in Ontario felt that male homosexuality was a sign of degeneracy
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