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Chapter 3

WDW205 Textbook Summary - Chapter 3

2 Pages
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Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course Code
WDW101Y1
Professor
William Watson

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Criminology WDW205H1 FSeptember 21, 2010 Note Series 3
Chapter 3 The Nature and Extent of Crime
Recording Crime
Report-Sensitive Crimes- crimes that are sensitive to victims reporting them if a victim of sexual
assault, for example, does not report it, then it is unlikely that the police will know
Policing-Sensitive Crimes- crimes sensitive to law enforcement drug crimes, for example, is proactively
investigated by police, otherwise man drug offences would not be detected
Definition-Sensitive Crimes- crimes sensitive to legislative activity gambling, for example, has steadily
been decriminalized by a loosening of criminal sanctions around gaming
Media-Sensitive Crimes- crime that is sensitive to media attention youth crime, for example, in the
media increases public concern, which increases reports to police, which makes the news
UCR Uniform Crime Report- an aggregate census based on reports from police forces across Canada, the
official basis for criminological research in Canada
Incident-Based Data- compared to aggregate crime data, incident-based data provides data on factors
such as location of offence and relationship between offender and victim
Incidence- the number of crimes reported to the police in a given time period
Founded- the percentage of crimes reported to the police that are investigated and believed to be real;
otherwise known as actual
Percentage Change- calculating the increase or decreases in crime rates over a period of years so that, for
example, criminologists can tell whether society is becoming more dangerous
Crime Rate- this number is derived by calculating the ratio of crimes in the whole population as
expressed as per 100,000 people, providing the relative likelihood of crime occurring
Cleared- crimes that are determined to be founded, which are then solved or cleared away by police;
cleared crimes do not necessarily result in charges or conviction
Attrition- Decrease in cases as they make their way through the criminal justice system; number of cases
investigated by police that result in convictions is small percentage of total
Crime Funnel- as cases move further into the justice system, the number of cases being dealt with
gradually drops
CCJS- Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics
Data Collection Methods
Uniform Crime Report UCR
-data is collected from records from police departments across the nation
-strengths of the UCR are that it measures homicides and arrests. It is a consistent, national sample
-weaknesses of the UCR are that it omits crimes not reported to police, omits most drug usage, and
contains reporting errors
General Social Survey on Victimization GSS
-data is collected from a national survey of victims
-strengths of the GSS are that it includes crimes not reported to the police, uses careful sampling
techniques, and is a regular survey
-weaknesses of the GSS are that it relies on victims’ memories and honesty, and omits substance abuse
Self-Report Surveys
-data is collected from surveys of students
-strengths are that they include non-reported crimes, substance abuse, and offenders personal
information
-weaknesses are that they rely on the honesty of offenders and that they omit offenders who refuse to or
who are unable to participate and who may be the most deviant
Social Class and Crime
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Criminology WDW205H1 F September 21, 2010 Note Series 3 Chapter 3 The Nature and Extent of Crime Recording Crime Report-Sensitive Crimes- crimes that are sensitive to victims reporting them if a victim of sexual assault, for example, does not report it, then it is unlikely that the police will know Policing-Sensitive Crimes- crimes sensitive to law enforcement drug crimes, for example, is proactively investigated by police, otherwise man drug offences would not be detected Definition-Sensitive Crimes- crimes sensitive to legislative activity gambling, for example, has steadily been decriminalized by a loosening of criminal sanctions around gaming Media-Sensitive Crimes- crime that is sensitive to media attention youth crime, for example, in the media increases public concern, which increases reports to police, which makes the news UCR Uniform Crime Report- an aggregate census based on reports from police forces across Canada, the official basis for criminological research in Canada Incident-Based Data- compared to aggregate crime data, incident-based data provides data on factors such as location of offence and relationship between offender and victim Incidence- the number of crimes reported to the police in a given time period Founded- the percentage of crimes reported to the police that are investigated and believed to be real; otherwise known as actual Percentage Change- calculating the increase or decreases in crime rates over a period of years so that, for example, criminologists can tell whether society is becoming more dangerous Crime Rate- this number is derived by calculating the ratio of crimes in th
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