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Chapter 4

WDW205 Textbook Summary - Chapter 4

2 Pages
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Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course Code
WDW101Y1
Professor
William Watson

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Criminology WDW205H1 FSeptember 21, 2010 Note Series 4
Chapter 4 Victims and Victimization
Victimology
Victimology- the study of the victims role in criminal transactions
Cycle of Violence- the phenomenon of child victims becoming adult criminals later in life due to their early
experiences
Acquaintance-related Crime- similar to intimate violence, in some crimes there is a prior relationship
between the offender and the victim; date rape is such a crime
Stranger-Related Crime- unlike acquaintance-related crime, some crimes do not require or arise from a
prior relationship between the offender and the victim, an example would be carjacking
Three Characteristics that Increase the Potential for Victimization
1. Target Vulnerability the victims physical weakness or psychological distress renders them incapable
of deterring crime and makes them easy targets e.g. drinking
2. Target Gratifiability the victims characteristics increase their risk because they have some quality or
possession that an offender wants to obtain e.g. leather coat
3. Target Antagonism some characteristics increase risk because they arouse anger, jealousy, or
destructive impulses in the offender e.g. dressing differently
Theories of Victimization
Victimologist- researchers who study the important role that victims play in the crime process
Victim Precipitation- the victims behaviour or characteristics was the spark that ignited the subsequent
offence, such as verbally abusing the offender, or openly displaying wealth
Active Precipitation- the aggressive behaviour of victims provoke the reaction of the offender
Passive Precipitation- the personal and social characteristics of victims make them attractive targets for
predatory criminals
Aggravating Factor- circumstances that make a crime more serious in the eyes of others; in hate crime, for
example, racism makes an assault more serious, resulting in a harsher sentence
Mitigating Factor- circumstances that make a crime less serious to other people; for example, abused
people react more extremely when threatened, based on the perception that their lives are at risk; this
serves to make the sentence lighter, or might serve as an entire defence
Theories and Hypothesis
Equivalent Group Hypothesis- the view that victims and criminals share similar characteristics because
they are not actually separate groups and that a criminal lifestyle exposes people to increased levels of
victimization risk
Lifestyle Theory- the lifestyle of the victim is a factor in the likelihood of a crime being committed, such as
the number of times one goes out per month or the people they hang around with
Proximity Hypothesis- the view that people become crime victims because they live or work in areas with
large criminal populations
Deviant Place Hypothesis- the theory that suggests there are natural areas for crime, which are poor,
densely populated, highly transient neighbourhoods in which commercial and residential property exist
side by side
Routine Activities Theory- the view that crime is a normal function of the routing activities of modern
living if there is a suitable target, not protected by capable guardians, in the presence of motivated
offenders
Predatory Crime- a violent, opportunistic crime, not usually familiar-related, such as stealing brand name
clothing from strangers
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Description
Criminology WDW205H1 F September 21, 2010 Note Series 4 Chapter 4 Victims and Victimization Victimology Victimology- the study of the victims role in criminal transactions Cycle of Violence- the phenomenon of child victims becoming adult criminals later in life due to their early experiences Acquaintance-related Crime- similar to intimate violence, in some crimes there is a prior relationship between the offender and the victim; date rape is such a crime Stranger-Related Crime- unlike acquaintance-related crime, some crimes do not require or arise from a prior relationship between the offender and the victim, an example would be carjacking Three Characteristics that Increase the Potential for Victimization 1. Target Vulnerability the victims physical weakness or psychological distress renders them incapable of deterring crime and makes them easy targets e.g. drinking 2. Target Gratifiability the victims characteristics increase their risk because they have some quality or possession that an offender wants to obtain e.g. leather coat 3. Target Antagonism some characteristics increase risk because they arouse anger, jealousy, or destructive impulses in the offender e.g. dressing differently Theories of Victimization Victimologist- researchers who study the important role that victims play in the crime process Victim Precipitation- the victims behaviour or characteristics was the spark that ignited the subsequent offence, such as verbally abusing the offender, or openly displaying wealth Active Precipitation- the aggressive behaviour of victims provoke the reaction of the offender Passive Precipitation- the personal and socia
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